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dc.contributor.authorAzagi, Tal
dc.contributor.authorHoornstra, Dieuwertje
dc.contributor.authorKremer, Kristin
dc.contributor.authorHovius, Joppe W R
dc.contributor.authorSprong, Hein
dc.date.accessioned2020-05-24T19:50:09Z
dc.date.available2020-05-24T19:50:09Z
dc.date.issued2020-02-24
dc.identifier.issn2076-0817
dc.identifier.pmid32102367
dc.identifier.doi10.3390/pathogens9020150
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10029/623777
dc.description.abstractIn Europe, Ixodes ricinus ticks transmit pathogens such as Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). In addition, there is evidence for transmission to humans from I. ricinus of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia divergens, Babesia microti, Babesia venatorum, Borrelia miyamotoi, Neoehrlichia mikurensis, Rickettsia helvetica and Rickettsiamonacensis. However, whether infection with these potential tick-borne pathogens results in human disease has not been fully demonstrated for all of these tick-borne microorganisms. To evaluate the available evidence for a causative relation between infection and disease, the current study analyses European case reports published from 2008 to 2018, supplemented with information derived from epidemiological and experimental studies. The evidence for human disease causality in Europe found in this review appeared to be strongest for A. phagocytophilum and B. divergens. Nonetheless, some knowledge gaps still exist. Importantly, comprehensive evidence for pathogenicity is lacking for the remaining tick-borne microorganisms. Such evidence could be gathered best through prospective studies, for example, studies enrolling patients with a fever after a tick bite, the development of specific new serological tools, isolation of these microorganisms from ticks and patients and propagation in vitro, and through experimental studies.en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.subjectBabesiosisen_US
dc.subjectBorrelia miyamotoi Diseaseen_US
dc.subjectHuman Granulocytic Anaplasmosisen_US
dc.subjectIxodes ricinusen_US
dc.subjectNeoehrlichiosisen_US
dc.subjectSpotted Fever Rickettsiosisen_US
dc.subjecttick-borne diseasesen_US
dc.titleEvaluation of Disease Causality of Rare -Borne Infections in Europe.en_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.journalPathogens 2020; 9(2):pii.e150en_US
dc.source.journaltitlePathogens (Basel, Switzerland)


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