• Changes in (risk) behavior and HPV knowledge among Dutch girls eligible for HPV vaccination: an observational cohort study.

      Donken, Robine; Tami, Adriana; Knol, Mirjam J; Lubbers, Karin; van der Sande, Marianne A B; Nijman, Hans W; Daemen, Toos; Weijmar Schultz, Willibrord C M; de Melker, Hester E (2018-07-05)
      Implementation of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination raised concerns that vaccination could lead to riskier sexual behavior. This study explored how possible differences in sexual behavior and HPV knowledge developed over time between HPV-vaccinated and unvaccinated girls.
    • Changes in body composition during and after adjuvant or neo-adjuvant chemotherapy in women with breast cancer stage I-IIIB compared with changes over a similar timeframe in women without cancer.

      van den Berg, M M G A; Kok, D E; Visser, M; de Vries, J H M; de Kruif, J Th C M; de Vries, Y; Posthuma, L; Sommeijer, D W; Timmer-Bonte, A; Los, M; et al. (2019-07-09)
    • Changes in dietary intake, plasma carotenoids and erythrocyte membrane fatty acids in breast cancer survivors after a lifestyle intervention: results from a single-arm trial.

      Buckland, G; Travier, N; Arribas, L; Del Barco, S; Pernas, S; Zamora, E; Bellet, M; Cirauqui, B; Margelí, M; Muñoz, M; et al. (2019-01-21)
      The influence of nutrition on breast cancer prognosis is still inconclusive and therefore dietary interventions incorporating dietary biomarkers are needed to confirm compliance with dietary goals and clarify biological mechanisms. The present study assessed whether a lifestyle intervention in breast cancer survivors could affect dietary biomarkers of fruit and vegetables and fatty acids. In this phase II single-arm trial, 37 overweight/obese early stage breast cancer patients completed a 12-week diet and exercise intervention. The intervention involved 1-h weekly diet sessions delivered by a dietician and 75-min bi-weekly physical activity sessions of moderate-to-high intensity led by trained monitors. Before and after the intervention, three 24-h dietary recalls were carried out to calculate nutrient intakes and, in addition, blood samples were taken to measure plasma carotenoids, vitamin E and retinol concentrations and erythrocyte membrane fatty acid (EFA) composition. Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to assess changes in dietary and biomarkers measurements over the intervention period. After the intervention, there was a significant increase in the intake of dietary carotenoids (+15.1% compared to baseline) but not plasma carotenoids levels (+6.3%). Regarding the EFA levels, we observed a significant decrease in percentage of saturated fatty acids (-1.4%) and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (-2.9%) and an increase in monounsaturated fatty acids (1.7%) and total and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (by 13.1% and 13.7%, respectively). A favourable decrease in the ratio of long-chain n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (-9.1%) was also observed. After a short-term diet and exercise intervention in overweight/obese breast cancer survivors, we observed significant changes in dietary nutrients and fatty acid biomarkers, suggesting positive dietary changes that could be relevant for breast cancer prognosis.
    • Changes in Emissions of Ozone-Depleting Substances from China Due to Implementation of the Montreal Protocol.

      Fang, Xuekun; Ravishankara, A R; Velders, Guus J M; Molina, Mario J; Su, Shenshen; Zhang, Jianbo; Hu, Jianxin; Prinn, Ronald G (2018-10-02)
      The ozone layer depletion and its recovery, as well as the climate influence of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) and their substitutes that influence climate, are of interest to both the scientific community and the public. Here we report on the emissions of ODSs and their substitute from China, which is currently the largest consumer (and emitter) of these substances. We provide, for the first time, comprehensive information on ODSs and replacement hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) emissions in China starting from 1980 based on reported production and usage. We also assess the impacts (and costs) of controls on ODS consumption and emissions on the ozone layer (in terms of CFC-11-equivalent) and climate (in CO2-equivalent). In addition, we show that while China's future ODS emissions are likely to be defined as long as there is full compliance with the Montreal Protocol; its HFC emissions through 2050 are very uncertain. Our findings imply that HFC controls over the next decades that are more stringent than those under the Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol would be beneficial in mitigating global climate change.
    • Changes in HPV Seroprevalence from an Unvaccinated Toward a Girls-Only Vaccinated Population in the Netherlands.

      Pasmans, Hella; Hoes, Joske; Tymchenko, Liza; de Melker, Hester E; van der Klis, Fiona R M (2020-08-20)
      Serum samples of men and women were used from two cross-sectional population-based serosurveillance studies performed before (2006-07, n = 6,384) and after (2016-17, n = 5,645) implementation of HPV vaccination in the Netherlands. Seven high-risk HPV-specific antibodies (HPV16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58) were tested in a virus-like particle-based multiplex immunoassay.
    • Changes in Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Caused by Serotype 1 Following Introduction of PCV10 and PCV13: Findings from the PSERENADE Project.

      Bennett, Julia C; Hetrich, Marissa K; Quesada, Maria Garcia; Sinkevitch, Jenna N; Knoll, Maria Deloria; Feikin, Daniel R; Zeger, Scott L; Kagucia, Eunice W; Cohen, Adam L; Ampofo, Krow; et al. (2021-03-27)
      Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 1 (ST1) was an important cause of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) globally before the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) containing ST1 antigen. The Pneumococcal Serotype Replacement and Distribution Estimation (PSERENADE) project gathered ST1 IPD surveillance data from sites globally and aimed to estimate PCV10/13 impact on ST1 IPD incidence. We estimated ST1 IPD incidence rate ratios (IRRs) comparing the pre-PCV10/13 period to each post-PCV10/13 year by site using a Bayesian multi-level, mixed-effects Poisson regression and all-site IRRs using a linear mixed-effects regression (N = 45 sites). Following PCV10/13 introduction, the incidence rate (IR) of ST1 IPD declined among all ages. After six years of PCV10/13 use, the all-site IRR was 0.05 (95% credibility interval 0.04-0.06) for all ages, 0.05 (0.04-0.05) for <5 years of age, 0.08 (0.06-0.09) for 5-17 years, 0.06 (0.05-0.08) for 18-49 years, 0.06 (0.05-0.07) for 50-64 years, and 0.05 (0.04-0.06) for ≥65 years. PCV10/13 use in infant immunization programs was followed by a 95% reduction in ST1 IPD in all ages after approximately 6 years. Limited data availability from the highest ST1 disease burden countries using a 3+0 schedule constrains generalizability and data from these settings are needed.
    • Changes in LXR signaling influence early-pregnancy lipogenesis and protect against dysregulated fetoplacental lipid homeostasis.

      Nikolova, Vanya; Papacleovoulou, Georgia; Bellafante, Elena; Borges Manna, Luiza; Jansen, Eugene; Baron, Silvère; Abu-Hayyeh, Shadi; Parker, Malcolm; Williamson, Catherine (2017-10-01)
      Human pregnancy is associated with enhanced de novo lipogenesis in the early stages followed by hyperlipidemia during advanced gestation. Liver X receptors (LXRs) are oxysterol-activated nuclear receptors that stimulate de novo lipogenesis and also promote the efflux of cholesterol from extrahepatic tissues followed by its transport back to the liver for biliary excretion. Although LXR is recognized as a master regulator of triglyceride and cholesterol homeostasis, it is unknown whether it facilitates the gestational adaptations in lipid metabolism. To address this question, biochemical profiling, protein quantification, and gene expression studies were used, and gestational metabolic changes in T0901317-treated wild-type mice and Lxrab-/- mutants were investigated. Here, we show that altered LXR signaling contributes to the enhanced lipogenesis in early pregnancy by increasing the expression of hepatic Fas and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (Scd1). Both the pharmacological activation of LXR with T0901317 and the genetic ablation of its two isoforms disrupted the increase in hepatic fatty acid biosynthesis and the development of hypertriglyceridemia during early gestation. We also demonstrate that absence of LXR enhances maternal white adipose tissue lipolysis, causing abnormal accumulation of triglycerides, cholesterol, and free fatty acids in the fetal liver. Together, these data identify LXR as an important factor in early-pregnancy lipogenesis that is also necessary to protect against abnormalities in fetoplacental lipid homeostasis.
    • Changing epidemiology of invasive non-typhoid Salmonella infection: a nationwide population-based registry study.

      Mughini-Gras, L; Pijnacker, R; Duijster, J; Heck, M; Wit, B; Veldman, K; Franz, E (2019-11-21)
    • Characterisation of microorganisms used for the production of food enzymes.

      Silano, V; Barat Bavier, JM; Bolognesi, C; Bruschweiler, BJ; Cocconcelli, PS; Crebelli, R; Gott, DM; van Loveren, H (2019-11-21)
    • Characterisation of the natural environment: quantitative indicators across Europe.

      Smith, Graham; Cirach, Marta; Swart, Wim; Dėdelė, Audrius; Gidlow, Christopher; van Kempen, Elise; Kruize, Hanneke; Gražulevičienė, Regina; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J (2017-04-26)
      The World Health Organization recognises the importance of natural environments for human health. Evidence for natural environment-health associations comes largely from single countries or regions, with varied approaches to measuring natural environment exposure. We present a standardised approach to measuring neighbourhood natural environment exposure in cities in different regions of Europe.
    • Characterising Mutational Spectra of Carcinogens in the Tumour Suppressor Gene Using Human Knock-in (Hupki) Mouse Embryo Fibroblasts.

      Hölzl-Armstrong, Lisa; Kucab, Jill E; Korenjak, Michael; Luijten, Mirjam; Phillips, David H; Zavadil, Jiri; Arlt, Volker M (2019-11-13)
      DNA in dividing cells is prone to mutagenesis, with mutations making key contributions to human disease including cancer. The tumour suppressor gene TP53 is the most frequently mutated gene in human tumours. Here, we present a robust protocol for studying TP53 mutagenesis utilising human TP53 knock-in (Hupki) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (HUFs). In the HUF immortalisation assay (HIMA), primary HUFs are treated with known or suspected carcinogens at 3% oxygen and then transferred to 20% atmospheric oxygen to induce senescence. Cells containing mutations (e.g., in TP53) that allow bypassing of senescence eventually emerge as immortalised clonal cell lines after 2-3 months of serial passaging. As not all immortalised HUF cells contain TP53 mutations, we developed a Nutlin-3a counter-screen to select for TP53-mutated clones prior to sequencing. TP53 mutation spectra generated can be compared with those of human tumours recorded in the International Agency for Research on Cancer TP53 mutation database. Environmental mutagens that have demonstrated and validated the utility of the HIMA include ultraviolet radiation, aristolochic acid, and benzo[a]pyrene. The TP53 mutation patterns induced by these mutagens in the HIMA corresponded to those found in human tumours from patients exposed to these mutagens. The approach presented helps to deepen our understanding of human cancer aetiology.
    • Characterization of Enterococcus Isolates Colonizing the Intestinal Tract of Intensive Care Unit Patients Receiving Selective Digestive Decontamination

      Bello Gonzalez, Teresita d. J.; Pham, Phu; Top, Janetta; Willems, Rob J. L.; van Schaik, Willem; van Passel, Mark W. J.; Smidt, Hauke (2017-08-28)
    • Characterizing Adult Sleep Behavior Over 20 Years-The Population-Based Doetinchem Cohort Study.

      Zomers, Margot L; Hulsegge, Gerben; van Oostrom, Sandra H; Proper, Karin I; Verschuren, W M Monique; Picavet, H Susan J (2017-07-01)
      To describe sleep duration patterns of adults over a 20-year period; to compare sociodemographic, lifestyle, and health characteristics across these patterns; and to relate the patterns to sleep quality.
    • Characterizing the Chemical Profile of Incidental Ultrafine Particles for Toxicity Assessment Using an Aerosol Concentrator.

      Viana, M; Salmatonidis, A; Bezantakos, S; Ribalta, C; Moreno, N; Córdoba, P; Cassee, F R; Boere, J; Fraga, S; Teixeira, J P; et al. (2021-07-27)
    • Chemical carcinogen safety testing: OECD expert group international consensus on the development of an integrated approach for the testing and assessment of chemical non-genotoxic carcinogens.

      Jacobs, Miriam N; Colacci, Annamaria; Corvi, Raffaella; Vaccari, Monica; Aguila, M Cecilia; Corvaro, Marco; Delrue, Nathalie; Desaulniers, Daniel; Ertych, Norman; Jacobs, Abigail; et al. (2020-06-27)
    • Chemical composition and source identification of PM 10 in five North Western European cities

      Hama, Sarkawt M.L.; Cordell, Rebecca L.; Staelens, Jeroen; Mooibroek, Dennis; Monks, Paul S. (2018-12)
    • Chemical pollution imposes limitations to the ecological status of European surface waters.

      Posthuma, Leo; Zijp, Michiel C; De Zwart, Dick; Van de Meent, Dik; Globevnik, Lidija; Koprivsek, Maja; Focks, Andreas; van Gils, Jos; Birk, Sebastian (2020-09-09)
    • Chemical similarity to identify potential substances of very high concern - an effective screening method

      Wassenaar, PNH; Rorije, E; Janssen, NMH; Peijnenburg, WJGM; Vijver, MG (2019-09-10)