• Laboratory management of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus infections: perspectives from two European networks.

      Bartolini, Barbara; Gruber, Cesare Em; Koopmans, Marion; Avšič, Tatjana; Bino, Sylvia; Christova, Iva; Grunow, Roland; Hewson, Roger; Korukluoglu, Gulay; Lemos, Cinthia Menel; et al. (2019-01-01)
      BackgroundCrimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is considered an emerging infectious disease threat in the European Union. Since 2000, the incidence and geographic range of confirmed CCHF cases have markedly increased, following changes in the distribution of its main vector,
    • Laboratory methods for case finding in human psittacosis outbreaks: a systematic review.

      Nieuwenhuizen, Annelies A; Dijkstra, Frederika; Notermans, Daan W; van der Hoek, Wim (2018-08-30)
      Psittacosis outbreak investigations require rapid identification of cases in order to trace possible sources and perform public health risk assessments. In recent outbreaks in the Netherlands, such investigations were hampered by the non-specificity of laboratory testing methods to identify human Chlamydia psittaci infections.
    • Lack of evidence for the presence of Leprosy Bacilli in Red Squirrels from North-West Europe.

      Tió-Coma, Maria; Sprong, Hein; Kik, Marja; van Dissel, Jaap T; Han, Xiang-Yang; Pieters, Toine; Geluk, Annemieke (2019-11-16)
    • Lagging Immune Response to Serotype b (Hib) Conjugate Vaccine after the Primary Vaccination with Hib of Infants in The Netherlands.

      Schouls, Leo; Schot, Corrie; de Voer, Richarda M; van der Klis, Fiona; Knol, Mirjam; Tcherniaeva, Irina; Berbers, Guy (2020-06-30)
      In 1993, a Haemophilus influenzae serotype b (Hib) conjugate vaccine was introduced in the Dutch national immunization program, resulting in a sharp decrease in invasive Hib disease. We used a population-based set of serum samples collected in the Netherlands in 2006-2007 (Pienter-II, 5696 sera) to assess the concentration of antibodies to the capsular polysaccharide of Hib, and compared the results with those obtained from a similar set collected in 1995-1996 (Pienter-I, 7837 sera). Post-primary vaccination serum samples from children aged 6-11 months from the Pienter-II study contained approximately 4-fold lower anti-Hib antibody concentrations than samples from children from the Pienter-I study. No such difference was found in post-booster samples from children older than 11 months of age. In Pienter-II, the proportion of children aged 6-11 months with anti-Hib antibody concentrations below the putative protective concentration of 0.15 µg/mL was 30%, which is significantly higher than in the Pienter-I study (12%). Fewer children in the Pienter-II group developed antibodies able to kill Hib in a serum bactericidal assay compared to the Pienter-I children. The cause of the lagged response in Pienter-II children remain uncertain, but lack of natural boosting, interference by the acellular pertussis vaccine, combining vaccines and acceleration of the schedule may have contributed.
    • LAIR-1 limits neutrophil extracellular trap formation in viral bronchiolitis.

      Geerdink, Ruben J; Hennus, Marije P; Westerlaken, Geertje H A; Abrahams, Alferso C; Albers, Kim I; Walk, Jona; Wesselink, Esther; Janssen, Riny; Bont, Louis; Meyaard, Linde (2018-01-01)
    • Land use and water quality.

      Kronvang, B; Fraters, D; Wendland, F (2020-09-06)
    • Land use and water quality.

      Kronvang, B; Wendland, F; Kovar, K; Fraters, D (2020-09-29)
    • Land use regression modelling estimating nitrogen oxides exposure in industrial south Durban, South Africa.

      Muttoo, Sheena; Ramsay, Lisa; Brunekreef, Bert; Beelen, Rob; Meliefste, Kees; Naidoo, Rajen N (2018-01-01)
      The South Durban (SD) area of Durban, South Africa, has a history of air pollution issues due to the juxtaposition of low-income communities with industrial areas. This study used measurements of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) to develop a land use regression (LUR) model to explain the spatial variation of air pollution concentrations in this area.
    • Large health disparities in cardiovascular death in men and women, by ethnicity and socioeconomic status in an urban based population cohort.

      Kist, Janet M; Smit, Gideon W G; Mairuhu, Albert T A; Struijs, Jeroen N; Vos, Rimke C; van Peet, Petra G; Vos, Hedwig M M; Beishuizen, Edith D; Sijpkens, Yvo W J; Groenwold, Rolf H H; et al. (2021-08-29)
    • Large-scale genomic analysis shows association between homoplastic genetic variation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes and meningeal or pulmonary tuberculosis.

      Ruesen, Carolien; Chaidir, Lidya; van Laarhoven, Arjan; Dian, Sofiati; Ganiem, Ahmad Rizal; Nebenzahl-Guimaraes, Hanna; Huynen, Martijn A; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Dutilh, Bas E; van Crevel, Reinout (2018)
      Meningitis is the most severe manifestation of tuberculosis. It is largely unknown why some people develop pulmonary TB (PTB) and others TB meningitis (TBM); we examined if the genetic background of infecting M. tuberculosis strains may be relevant.
    • Latent classes of sexual risk and corresponding STI and HIV positivity among MSM attending centres for sexual health in the Netherlands.

      Slurink, Isabel A L; van Benthem, Birgit H B; van Rooijen, Martijn S; Achterbergh, Roel C A; van Aar, Fleur (2019-06-20)
    • Latent CMV Infection Is Associated With Lower Influenza Virus-Specific Memory T-Cell Frequencies, but Not With an Impaired T-Cell Response to Acute Influenza Virus Infection.

      van den Berg, Sara P H; Lanfermeijer, Josien; Jacobi, Ronald H J; Hendriks, Marion; Vos, Martijn; van Schuijlenburg, Roos; Nanlohy, Nening M; Borghans, José A M; van Beek, Josine; van Baarle, Debbie; et al. (2021-05-05)
      Latent infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) is assumed to contribute to the age-associated decline of the immune system. CMV induces large changes in the T-cell pool and may thereby affect other immune responses. CMV is expected to impact especially older adults, who are already at higher risk of severe disease and hospitalization upon infections such as influenza virus (IAV) infection. Here, we investigated the impact of CMV infection on IAV-specific CD8+ T-cell frequencies in healthy individuals (n=96) and the response to IAV infection in older adults (n=72). IAV-specific memory T-cell frequencies were lower in healthy CMV+ older individuals compared to healthy CMV- older individuals. Upon acute IAV infection, CMV serostatus or CMV-specific antibody levels were not negatively associated with IAV-specific T-cell frequencies, function, phenotype or T-cell receptor repertoire diversity. This suggests that specific T-cell responses upon acute IAV infection are not negatively affected by CMV. In addition, we found neither an association between CMV infection and inflammatory cytokine levels in serum during acute IAV infection nor between cytokine levels and the height of the IAV-specific T-cell response upon infection. Finally, CMV infection was not associated with increased severity of influenza-related symptoms. In fact, CMV infection was even associated with increased IAV-specific T-cell responses early upon acute IAV infection. In conclusion, although associated with lower frequencies of memory IAV-specific T cells in healthy individuals, CMV infection does not seem to hamper the induction of a proper T-cell response during acute IAV infection in older adults.
    • Latent tuberculosis infection in foreign-born communities: Import vs. transmission in The Netherlands derived through mathematical modelling.

      Korthals Altes, Hester; Kloet, Serieke; Cobelens, Frank; Bootsma, Martin (2018)
      While tuberculosis (TB) represents a significant disease burden worldwide, low-incidence countries strive to reach the WHO target of pre-elimination by 2035. Screening for TB in immigrants is an important component of the strategy to reduce the TB burden in low-incidence settings. An important option is the screening and preventive treatment of latent TB infection (LTBI). Whether this policy is worthwhile depends on the extent of transmission within the country, and introduction of new cases through import. Mathematical transmission models of TB have been used to identify key parameters in the epidemiology of TB and estimate transmission rates. An important application has also been to investigate the consequences of policy scenarios. Here, we formulate a mathematical model for TB transmission within the Netherlands to estimate the size of the pool of latent infections, and to determine the share of importation-either through immigration or travel- versus transmission within the Netherlands. We take into account importation of infections due to immigration, and travel to the country of origin, focusing on the three ethnicities most represented among foreign-born TB cases (after exclusion of those overrepresented among asylum seekers): Moroccans, Turkish and Indonesians. We fit a system of ordinary differential equations to the data from the Netherlands Tuberculosis Registry on (extra-)pulmonary TB cases from 1995-2013. We estimate that about 27% of Moroccans, 25% of Indonesians, and 16% of Turkish, are latently infected. Furthermore, we find that for all three foreign-born communities, immigration is the most important source of LTBI, but the extent of within-country transmission is much lower (about half) for the Turkish and Indonesian communities than for the Moroccan. This would imply that contact investigation would have a greater yield in the latter community than in the former. Travel remains a minor factor contributing LTBI, suggesting that targeting returning travelers might be less effective at preventing LTBI than immigrants upon entry in the country.
    • Latent tuberculosis screening and treatment among asylum seekers: a mixed methods study.

      Spruijt, Ineke; Tesfay Haile, Dawit; Suurmond, Jeanine; van den Hof, Susan; Koenders, Marga; Kouw, Peter; van Noort, Natascha; Toumanian, Sophie; Cobelens, Frank; Goosen, Simone; et al. (2019-09-19)
    • Latent tuberculosis screening and treatment among asylum seekers: a mixed-methods study.

      Spruijt, Ineke; Erkens, Connie; van den Hof, Susan; Cobelens, Frank (2020-04-01)
    • Launching stakeholder discussions on identified regulatory needs for nanotechnology-enabled health products.

      Halamoda-Kenzaoui, B; Box, H; van Elk, M; Gaitan, S; Geertsma, RE (2020-12-24)
    • De LCI in 2016: van A(viaire influenza) tot Z(ika).

      Haverkate M; Broek I van den; Oomen T; SwaanC (2017-10)
    • De LCI in 2017

      Meiberg, AE; Haverkate, MR; Veenstra, T; Swaan, CM (2018-10-10)
    • LCIA framework and cross-cutting issues guidance within the UNEP-SETAC Life Cycle Initiative

      Verones, Francesca; Bare, Jane; Bulle, Cécile; Frischknecht, Rolf; Hauschild, Michael; Hellweg, Stefanie; Henderson, Andrew; Jolliet, Olivier; Laurent, Alexis; Liao, Xun; et al. (2017-09)