• Global update on the susceptibility of human influenza viruses to neuraminidase inhibitors and status of novel antivirals, 2016-2017.

      Lackenby, Angie; Besselaar, Terry G; Daniels, Rod S; Fry, Alicia; Gregory, Vicki; Gubareva, Larisa V; Huang, Weijuan; Hurt, Aeron C; Leang, Sook-Kwan; Lee, Raphael T C; et al. (2018-07-03)
      A total of 13672 viruses, collected by World Health Organization recognised National Influenza Centres between May 2016 and May 2017, were assessed for neuraminidase inhibitor susceptibility by four WHO Collaborating Centres for Reference and Research on Influenza and one WHO Collaborating Centre for the Surveillance Epidemiology and Control of Influenza. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) was determined for oseltamivir and zanamivir for all viruses, and for peramivir and laninamivir in a subset (n = 8457). Of the viruses tested, 94% were obtained from the Western Pacific, Americas and European WHO regions, while limited viruses were available from the Eastern Mediterranean, African and South East Asian regions. Reduced inhibition (RI) by one or more neuraminidase inhibitor was exhibited by 0.2% of viruses tested (n = 32). The frequency of viruses with RI has remained low since this global analysis began (2015/16: 0.8%, 2014/15: 0.5%; 2013/14: 1.9%; 2012/13: 0.6%) but 2016/17 has the lowest frequency observed to date. Analysis of 13581 neuraminidase sequences retrieved from public databases, of which 5243 sequences were from viruses not included in the phenotypic analyses, identified 58 further viruses (29 without phenotypic analyses) with amino acid substitutions associated with RI by at least one neuraminidase inhibitor. Bringing the total proportion to 0.5% (90/18915). This 2016/17 analysis demonstrates that neuraminidase inhibitors remain suitable for treatment and prophylaxis of influenza virus infections, but continued monitoring is important. An expansion of surveillance testing is paramount since several novel influenza antivirals are in late stage clinical trials with some resistance already having been identified.
    • Global update on the susceptibility of human influenza viruses to neuraminidase inhibitors, 2015-2016.

      Gubareva, Larisa V; Besselaar, Terry G; Daniels, Rod S; Fry, Alicia; Gregory, Vicki; Huang, Weijuan; Hurt, Aeron C; Jorquera, Patricia A; Lackenby, Angie; Leang, Sook-Kwan; et al. (2017-10)
      Four World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Centres for Reference and Research on Influenza and one WHO Collaborating Centre for the Surveillance, Epidemiology and Control of Influenza (WHO CCs) assessed antiviral susceptibility of 14,330 influenza A and B viruses collected by WHO-recognized National Influenza Centres (NICs) between May 2015 and May 2016. Neuraminidase (NA) inhibition assay was used to determine 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) data for NA inhibitors (NAIs) oseltamivir, zanamivir, peramivir and laninamivir. Furthermore, NA sequences from 13,484 influenza viruses were retrieved from public sequence databases and screened for amino acid substitutions (AAS) associated with reduced inhibition (RI) or highly reduced inhibition (HRI) by NAIs. Of the viruses tested by WHO CCs 93% were from three WHO regions: Western Pacific, the Americas and Europe. Approximately 0.8% (n = 113) exhibited either RI or HRI by at least one of four NAIs. As in previous seasons, the most common NA AAS was H275Y in A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses, which confers HRI by oseltamivir and peramivir. Two A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses carried a rare NA AAS, S247R, shown in this study to confer RI/HRI by the four NAIs. The overall frequency of A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses containing NA AAS associated with RI/HRI was approximately 1.8% (125/6915), which is slightly higher than in the previous 2014-15 season (0.5%). Three B/Victoria-lineage viruses contained a new AAS, NA H134N, which conferred HRI by zanamivir and laninamivir, and borderline HRI by peramivir. A single B/Victoria-lineage virus harboured NA G104E, which was associated with HRI by all four NAIs. The overall frequency of RI/HRI phenotype among type B viruses was approximately 0.6% (43/7677), which is lower than that in the previous season. Overall, the vast majority (>99%) of the viruses tested by WHO CCs were susceptible to all four NAIs, showing normal inhibition (NI). Hence, NAIs remain the recommended antivirals for treatment of influenza virus infections. Nevertheless, our data indicate that it is prudent to continue drug susceptibility monitoring using both NAI assay and sequence analysis.
    • Global, regional and national trends of atmospheric ammonia derived from a decadal (2008-2018) satellite record.

      van Damme, M; Clarisse, L; Franco, B; Sutton, M; Erisman, JW; Wichink Kruit, R; van Zanten, M (2021-05-25)
    • Global, regional, and national burden of mortality associated with non-optimal ambient temperatures from 2000 to 2019: a three-stage modelling study.

      Zhao, Qi; Guo, Yuming; Ye, Tingting; Gasparrini, Antonio; Tong, Shilu; Overcenco, Ala; Urban, Aleš; Schneider, Alexandra; Entezari, Alireza; Vicedo-Cabrera, Ana Maria; et al.
    • GloPID-R report on chikungunya, o'nyong-nyong and Mayaro virus, part 2: Epidemiological distribution of o'nyong-nyong virus.

      Pezzi, L; LaBeaud, A D; Reusken, C B; Drexler, J F; Vasilakis, N; Diallo, M; Simon, F; Jaenisch, T; Gallian, P; Sall, A; et al. (2019-09-20)
    • GloPID-R report on chikungunya, o'nyong-nyong and Mayaro virus, part 5: Entomological aspects.

      Pezzi, L; Diallo, M; Rosa-Freitas, M G; Vega-Rua, A; Ng, L F P; Boyer, S; Drexler, J F; Vasilakis, N; Lourenco-de-Oliveira, R; Weaver, S C; et al. (2020-01-01)
    • GloPID-R report on Chikungunya, O'nyong-nyong and Mayaro virus, part I: Biological diagnostics.

      Pezzi, L; Reusken, C B; Weaver, S C; Drexler, J F; Busch, M; LaBeaud, A D; Diamond, M S; Vasilakis, N; Drebot, M A; Siqueira, A M; et al. (2019-03-21)
      The GloPID-R (Global Research Collaboration for Infectious Disease Preparedness) Chikungunya (CHIKV), O'nyong-nyong (ONNV) and Mayaro virus (MAYV) Working Group is investigating the natural history, epidemiology and medical management of infection by these viruses, to identify knowledge gaps and to propose recommendations for direct future investigations and rectification measures. Here, we present the first report dedicated to diagnostic aspects of CHIKV, ONNV and MAYV. Regarding diagnosis of the disease at the acute phase, molecular assays previously described for the three viruses require further evaluation, standardized protocols and the availability of international standards representing the genetic diversity of the viruses. Detection of specific IgM would benefit from further investigations to clarify the extent of cross-reactivity among the three viruses, the sensitivity of the assays, and the possible interfering role of cryoglobulinaemia. Implementation of reference panels and external quality assessments for both molecular and serological assays is necessary. Regarding sero-epidemiological studies, there is no reported high-throughput assay that can distinguish among these different viruses in areas of potential co-circulation. New specific tools and/or improved standardized protocols are needed to enable large-scale epidemiological studies of public health relevance to be performed. Considering the high risk of future CHIKV, MAYV and ONNV outbreaks, the Working Group recommends that a major investigation should be initiated to fill the existing diagnostic gaps.
    • Glucocorticoid receptor-dependent induction of () inhibits zebrafish caudal fin regeneration.

      Garland, Michael A; Sengupta, Sumitra; Mathew, Lijoy K; Truong, Lisa; de Jong, Esther; Piersma, Aldert H; La Du, Jane; Tanguay, Robert L (2019-01-01)
      We previously used a chemical genetics approach with the larval zebrafish to identify small molecule inhibitors of tissue regeneration. This led to the discovery that glucocorticoids (GC) block early stages of tissue regeneration by the inappropriate activation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). We performed a microarray analysis to identify the changes in gene expression associated with beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) exposure during epimorphic fin regeneration. Oncofetal cripto-1 showed > eight-fold increased expression in BDP-treated regenerates. We hypothesized that the mis-expression of cripto-1 was essential for BDP to block regeneration. Expression of cripto-1 was not elevated in GR morphants in the presence of BDP indicating that cripto-1 induction was GR-dependent. Partial translational suppression of Cripto-1 in the presence of BDP restored tissue regeneration. Retinoic acid exposure prevented increased cripto-1 expression and permitted regeneration in the presence of BDP. We demonstrated that BDP exposure increased cripto-1 expression in mouse embryonic stem cells and that regulation of cripto-1 by GCs is conserved in mammals.
    • Glycemic index, glycemic load, and risk of coronary heart disease: a pan-European cohort study.

      Sieri, Sabina; Agnoli, Claudia; Grioni, Sara; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Mattiello, Amalia; Sluijs, Ivonne; Sanchez, Maria Jose; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Sweeting, Michael; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; et al. (2020-07-03)
    • Governance aspects of large-scale implementation of automated surveillance of healthcare-associated infections.

      van Rooden, Stephanie M; Aspevall, Olov; Carrara, Elena; Gubbels, Sophie; Johansson, Anders; Lucet, Jean-Christophe; Mookerjee, Siddharth; Palacios-Baena, Zaira R; Presterl, Elisabeth; Tacconelli, Evelina; et al.
    • Governance Conditions for Improving Quality Drinking Water Resources: the Need for Enhancing Connectivity

      Wuijts, Susanne; Driessen, Peter P. J.; Van Rijswick, Helena F. M. W. (2017-12-03)
    • Governance conditions to overcome the challenges of realizing safe urban bathing water sites.

      Wuijts, S; Friederichs, L; Hin, JA; Schets, FM; van Rijkswick, HFMW; Driessen, PPJ (2020-07-24)
    • Green Space Visits among Adolescents: Frequency and Predictors in the PIAMA Birth Cohort Study.

      Bloemsma, Lizan D; Gehring, Ulrike; Klompmaker, Jochem O; Hoek, Gerard; Janssen, Nicole A H; Smit, Henriëtte A; Vonk, Judith M; Brunekreef, Bert; Lebret, Erik; Wijga, Alet H (2018)
      Green space may influence health through several pathways, for example, increased physical activity, enhanced social cohesion, reduced stress, and improved air quality. For green space to increase physical activity and social cohesion, spending time in green spaces is likely to be important.
    • Green space, air pollution, traffic noise and cardiometabolic health in adolescents: The PIAMA birth cohort.

      Bloemsma, Lizan D; Gehring, Ulrike; Klompmaker, Jochem O; Hoek, Gerard; Janssen, Nicole A H; Lebret, Erik; Brunekreef, Bert; Wijga, Alet H (2019-07-11)
      We did not observe consistent patterns of associations of green space, air pollution and traffic noise with the cardiometabolic risk score, blood pressure, total cholesterol levels, the total/HDL cholesterol ratio and HbA1c. We found inverse associations of air pollution with waist circumference at both age 12 and 16. These associations weakened after adjustment for region, except for particulate matter with a diameter of <2.5 μm (PM2.5) at age 12. The association of PM2.5 with waist circumference at age 12 remained after adjustment for green space and road traffic noise (adjusted difference - 1.42 cm [95% CI -2.50, -0.35 cm] per 1.16 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5).