• Fc-Mediated Antibody Effector Functions During Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection and Disease.

      van Erp, Elisabeth A; Luytjes, Willem; Ferwerda, Gerben; van Kasteren, Puck B (2019-01-01)
      Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of severe lower respiratory tract infections and hospitalization in infants under 1 year of age and there is currently no market-approved vaccine available. For protection against infection, young children mainly depend on their innate immune system and maternal antibodies. Traditionally, antibody-mediated protection against viral infections is thought to be mediated by direct binding of antibodies to viral particles, resulting in virus neutralization. However, in the case of RSV, virus neutralization titers do not provide an adequate correlate of protection. The current lack of understanding of the mechanisms by which antibodies can protect against RSV infection and disease or, alternatively, contribute to disease severity, hampers the design of safe and effective vaccines against this virus. Importantly, neutralization is only one of many mechanisms by which antibodies can interfere with viral infection. Antibodies consist of two structural regions: a variable fragment (Fab) that mediates antigen binding and a constant fragment (Fc) that mediates downstream effector functions via its interaction with Fc-receptors on (innate) immune cells or with C1q, the recognition molecule of the complement system. The interaction with Fc-receptors can lead to killing of virus-infected cells through a variety of immune effector mechanisms, including antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP). Antibody-mediated complement activation may lead to complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC). In addition, both Fc-receptor interactions and complement activation can exert a broad range of immunomodulatory functions. Recent studies have emphasized the importance of Fc-mediated antibody effector functions in both protection and pathogenesis for various infectious agents. In this review article, we aim to provide a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge on Fc-mediated antibody effector functions in the context of RSV infection, discuss their potential role in establishing the balance between protection and pathogenesis, and point out important gaps in our understanding of these processes. Furthermore, we elaborate on the regulation of these effector functions on both the cellular and humoral side. Finally, we discuss the implications of Fc-mediated antibody effector functions for the rational design of safe and effective vaccines and monoclonal antibody therapies against RSV.
    • Feasibility of Electronic Health Information and Surveillance System (eHISS) for disease symptom monitoring: A case of rural Ghana.

      Mohammed, Aliyu; Franke, Konstantin; Boakye Okyere, Portia; Brinkel, Johanna; Bonačić Marinovic, Axel; Kreuels, Benno; Krumkamp, Ralf; Fobil, Julius; May, Jürgen; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis (2018)
      The current surge of mobile phone use in many African countries creates the opportunity to provide caregivers with limited access to the health care system with vital health recommendations. At the same time such communication system can be utilised to collect tempero-spatial data on disease symptoms.
    • Feasibility of manufacturing tobacco with very low nicotine levels.

      Havermans, A; Pieper, E; Henkler-Stephani, R; Talhout, R (2020-11-12)
    • Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Neurological Disorders.

      Vendrik, Karuna E W; Ooijevaar, Rogier E; de Jong, Pieter R C; Laman, Jon D; van Oosten, Bob W; van Hilten, Jacobus J; Ducarmon, Quinten R; Keller, Josbert J; Kuijper, Eduard J; Contarino, Maria Fiorella (2020-01-01)
      Background: Several studies suggested an important role of the gut microbiota in the pathophysiology of neurological disorders, implying that alteration of the gut microbiota might serve as a treatment strategy. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is currently the most effective gut microbiota intervention and an accepted treatment for recurrent Clostridioides difficile infections. To evaluate indications of FMT for patients with neurological disorders, we summarized the available literature on FMT. In addition, we provide suggestions for future directions. Methods: In July 2019, five main databases were searched for studies and case descriptions on FMT in neurological disorders in humans or animal models. In addition, the ClinicalTrials.gov website was consulted for registered planned and ongoing trials. Results: Of 541 identified studies, 34 were included in the analysis. Clinical trials with FMT have been performed in patients with autism spectrum disorder and showed beneficial effects on neurological symptoms. For multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease, several animal studies suggested a positive effect of FMT, supported by some human case reports. For epilepsy, Tourette syndrome, and diabetic neuropathy some studies suggested a beneficial effect of FMT, but evidence was restricted to case reports and limited numbers of animal studies. For stroke, Alzheimer's disease and Guillain-Barré syndrome only studies with animal models were identified. These studies suggested a potential beneficial effect of healthy donor FMT. In contrast, one study with an animal model for stroke showed increased mortality after FMT. For Guillain-Barré only one study was identified. Whether positive findings from animal studies can be confirmed in the treatment of human diseases awaits to be seen. Several trials with FMT as treatment for the above mentioned neurological disorders are planned or ongoing, as well as for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Conclusions: Preliminary literature suggests that FMT may be a promising treatment option for several neurological disorders. However, available evidence is still scanty and some contrasting results were observed. A limited number of studies in humans have been performed or are ongoing, while for some disorders only animal experiments have been conducted. Large double-blinded randomized controlled trials are needed to further elucidate the effect of FMT in neurological disorders.
    • Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Influences Procarcinogenic Escherichia coli in Recipient Recurrent Clostridioides difficile Patients.

      Nooij, Sam; Ducarmon, Quinten R; Laros, Jeroen F J; Zwittink, Romy D; Norman, Jason M; Smits, Wiep Klaas; Verspaget, Hein W; Keller, Josbert J; Terveer, Elisabeth M; Kuijper, Ed J (2021-06-11)
      Patients with multiple recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (rCDI) have a disturbed gut microbiota that can be restored by fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). Despite extensive screening, healthy feces donors may carry bacteria in their intestinal tract that could have long-term health effects, such as potentially procarcinogenic polyketide synthase-positive (pks+) Escherichia coli. Here, we aim to determine whether the pks abundance and persistence of pks+E coli is influenced by pks status of the donor feces.
    • FFQ versus repeated 24-h recalls for estimating diet-related environmental impact.

      Mertens, Elly; Kuijsten, Anneleen; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Feskens, Edith J M; Van't Veer, Pieter (2019-01-08)
      There is an increasing interest in estimating environmental impact of individuals' diets by using individual-level food consumption data. However, like assessment of nutrient intakes, these data are prone to substantial measurement errors dependent on the method of dietary assessment, and this often result in attenuation of associations. To investigate the performance of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for estimating the environmental impact of the diet as compared to independent 24-h recalls (24hR), and to study the association between environmental impact and dietary quality for the FFQ and 24hR. We analysed cross-sectional data from 1169 men and women, aged 20-76 years, who participated in the NQplus study, the Netherlands. They completed a 216-item FFQ and two replicates of web-based 24hR. Life cycle assessments of 207 food products were used to calculate greenhouse gas emissions, fossil energy and land use, summarised into an aggregated score, pReCiPe. Validity of the FFQ was evaluated against 24hRs using correlation coefficients and attenuation coefficients. Associations with dietary quality were based on Dutch Healthy Diet 15-index (DHD15-index) and Nutrient Rich Diet score (NRD9.3). For pReCiPe, correlation coefficient between FFQ and 24hR was 0.33 when adjusted for covariates age, gender and BMI, and increased to 0.76 when de-attenuated for within-subject variation in the 24hR. Energy-adjustment slightly reduced these correlations (r = 0.71 for residuals of observed values and 0.59 for residuals of density values). Covariate-adjusted attenuation coefficient for the FFQ was 0.56 (ʎ
    • A field-scale decision support system for assessment and management of soil functions

      Debeljak, M; Trajanov, A; Kuzmanovski, V; Schroder, J; Sanden, T; Rutgers, M; et. al. (2019-10-04)
    • Filet américain oorzaak van eerste landelijke uitbraak van Shigatoxine-producerende Escherichia coli O157-infecties

      Doorduyn, Y; Jager, C M de; Zwaluw, W K van der; Friesema, I H M; Heuvelink, A E; Boer, E de; Wannet, Wim J B; Duynhoven, Yvonne T H P van (RIVM, 2006-08-01)
      In September 2005, the first nationwide outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 infections was observed. A total of 21 confirmed and 11 probable patients were reported, who fell ill between September 11 and October 10. Preliminary investigation by the local public health services revealed two possible risk factors: consumption of steak tartare and contact with other persons with gastroenteritis. The results of the subsequent case-control study suggested steak tartare as the most likely cause of the outbreak. Samples of steak tartare taken at a supermarket chain where most of the patients bought the product, tested negative for STEC O157. However, sampling took place 3 days after the date of symptom onset of the last outbreak case. Because 88% of the cases became ill within a two-week period and samples taken shortly afterwards tested negative, point source contamination of steak tartare was considered most plausible.
    • Financial incentives in primary care lifestyle interventions.

      Molema, CCM (Tilburg University, 2020-12-15)
    • First autochthonous human West Nile virus infections in the Netherlands, July to August 2020.

      Vlaskamp, Danique Rm; Thijsen, Steven Ft; Reimerink, Johan; Hilkens, Pieter; Bouvy, Willem H; Bantjes, Sabine E; Vlaminckx, Bart Jm; Zaaijer, Hans; van den Kerkhof, Hans Htc; Raven, Stijn Fh; et al.
    • First case of severe pneumonic tularemia in an immunocompetent patient in the Netherlands.

      Sigaloff, K C E; Chung, P K; Koopmans, J; Notermans, D W; van Rijckevorsel, G G C; Koene, M; Sprengers, R W; Gooskens, J; Stalenhoef, J E (2017-09)
      Tularemia is a zoonosis caused by different subspecies of the Gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis. We report the first case in the Netherlands of pneumonic tularemia caused by the F. tularensis subspecies holarctica after probable occupational inhalation of contaminated aerosols. Notification of cases of tularemia has been mandatory by law in the Netherlands since 1 November 2016.
    • First detection of Borrelia miyamotoi in Ixodes ricinus ticks from northern Italy.

      Ravagnan, Silvia; Tomassone, Laura; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Krawczyk, Aleksandra Iwona; Mastrorilli, Eleonora; Sprong, Hein; Milani, Adelaide; Rossi, Luca; Capelli, Gioia (2018-03-20)
      Borrelia miyamotoi is a spirochete transmitted by several ixodid tick species. It causes a relapsing fever in humans and is currently considered as an emerging pathogen. In Europe, B. miyamotoi seems to occur at low prevalence in Ixodes ricinus ticks but has a wide distribution. Here we report the first detection of B. miyamotoi in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in two independent studies conducted in 2016 in the north-eastern and north-western Alps, Italy.
    • The first isolation and molecular characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from horses in Serbia.

      Klun, Ivana; Uzelac, Aleksandra; Villena, Isabelle; Mercier, Aurélien; Bobić, Branko; Nikolić, Aleksandra; Rajnpreht, Irena; Opsteegh, Marieke; Aubert, Dominique; Blaga, Radu; et al. (2017-04-04)
      Consumption of undercooked or insufficiently cured meat is a major risk factor for human infection with Toxoplasma gondii. Although horsemeat is typically consumed rare or undercooked, information on the risk of T. gondii from infected horse meat to humans is scarce. Here, we present the results of a study to determine the presence of T. gondii infection in slaughter horses in Serbia, and to attempt to isolate viable parasites.
    • First isolation of Trichinella britovi from a wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Belgium.

      Schynts, F; Giessen, Joke van der; Tixhon, S; Pozio, E; Dorny, P; Borchgrave, J de (2006-01-30)
      Since 1992, when the European Union Council Directive requires that wild boars (Sus scrofa) hunted in EU for commercial purpose should be examined for Trichinella, the infection has not been detected in wild boars from Belgium, despite serological evidence of the presence of anti-Trichinella antibodies in wildlife and previous reports of Trichinella larvae in this host species. In November 2004, Trichinella larvae were detected in a wild boar hunted near Mettet, Namur province (Southern Belgium). Larvae were identified as Trichinella britovi by polymerase chain reaction methods. This is the first report of the identification of Trichinella larvae from Belgium at the species level. The detection of T. britovi in wildlife in Belgium is consistent with findings of this parasite in other European countries and confirms the need to test game meat for Trichinella to prevent its transmission to humans.
    • First outcomes of the fairmode & aquila intercomparison exercise on spatial representativeness

      Kracht O; Santiago JL; Martin F; Piersanti A; Cremona G; Righini G; Vitali L; Delaney KNguyen L (2018-06-06)
    • First trimester placental vascularization and angiogenetic factors are associated with adverse pregnancy outcome

      Leijnse, Johanna E.W.; de Heus, Roel; de Jager, Wilco; Rodenburg, Wendy; Peeters, Louis L.H.; Franx, Arie; Eijkelkamp, Niels (2018-07)