• Faeces as a novel material to estimate lyssavirus prevalence in bat populations.

      Begeman, Lineke; Kooi, Engbert A; van Weezep, Erik; van de Bildt, Marco W G; Reusken, Chantal B E M; Lina, Peter H C; Koopmans, Marion P G; van den Brand, Judith M A; Kuiken, Thijs (2020-03-01)
    • Failure to detect MERS-CoV RNA in urine of naturally infected dromedary camels.

      Farag, Elmoubasher A; Haagmans, Bart L; Al-Romaihi, Hamad; Mohran, Khaled; Haroun, Mohamed; El-Sayed, Ahmed M; Koopmans, Marion; AlHajri, Mohammed; Reusken, Chantal B E M (2019-01-01)
    • Fairmode: Update on current harmonisation initiatives

      Thunis P; Janssen S; Wesseling J; Tarrason L; Guevara M; Belis C; Pirovano (2018-06-06)
    • False hyperlactatemia in ethylene glycol poisoning.

      Fijen, Jan-Willem; Kemperman, Hans; Ververs, F F Tessa; Meulenbelt, Jan (2006-04-01)
    • Familiarity of general practitioners with Q fever decreases hospitalisation risk.

      Fanoy, E; Dijkstra, F; van der Hoek, W; Schneeberger, P; van de Kassteele, J; Rietveld, A (2018-05)
      Between 2007 and 2010, the Netherlands experienced large outbreaks of Q fever with over 4000 cases. There were unexplained geographical differences in hospitalisation rates of notified patients. We examined the extent of this geographic variation in Q fever hospitalisation and its potential association with general practitioner (GP) experience with Q fever.
    • Farm dust resistomes and bacterial microbiomes in European poultry and pig farms.

      Luiken, Roosmarijn E C; Van Gompel, Liese; Bossers, Alex; Munk, Patrick; Joosten, Philip; Hansen, Rasmus Borup; Knudsen, Berith E; García-Cobos, Silvia; Dewulf, Jeroen; Aarestrup, Frank M; et al. (2020-07-29)
    • Fast approximate computation of cervical cancer screening outcomes by a deterministic multiple-type HPV progression model.

      Vänskä, Simopekka; Bogaards, Johannes A; Auranen, Kari; Lehtinen, Matti; Berkhof, Johannes (2019-01-16)
      Cervical cancer arises differentially from infections with up to 14 high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types, making model-based evaluations of cervical cancer screening strategies computationally heavy and structurally complex. Thus, with the high number of HPV types, microsimulation is typically used to investigate cervical cancer screening strategies. We developed a feasible deterministic model that integrates varying natural history of cervical cancer by the different high-risk HPV types with compressed mixture representations of the screened population, allowing for fast computation of screening interventions. To evaluate the method, we built a corresponding microsimulation model. The outcomes of the deterministic model were stable over different levels of compression and agreed with the microsimulation model for all disease states, screening outcomes, and levels of cancer incidence. The compression reduced the computation time more than 1000 fold when compared to microsimulation in a cohort of 1 million women. The compressed mixture representations enable the assessment of uncertainties surrounding the natural history of cervical cancer and screening decisions in a computationally undemanding way.
    • Fasting leptin and appetite responses induced by a 4-day 65%-energy-restricted diet.

      Mars, M; Graaf, C de; Groot, C P G M de; Rossum, Caroline T M van; Kok, F J (2006-01-01)
      OBJECTIVE: Animal studies show that the leptin decline after acute severe caloric restriction is a peripheral signal to increase food intake. However, most human studies have failed to observe such a relationship. We studied the acute effects of severe caloric restriction on the association between serum leptin concentrations and subjective appetite. SUBJECTS: A total of 44 healthy adult men (aged: 43 +/- 5 years; BMI: 27.3 +/- 3.2 kg/m(2)). MEASUREMENTS: Fasting serum leptin concentrations and self-perceived appetite levels were measured during a 4-day diet containing 36% of the estimated energy requirements. Appetite levels were assessed with a 10-point Likert scale, reflecting hunger, fullness, desire to eat, prospective consumption and total appetite. RESULTS: After the 4-day energy deficit, fasting leptin concentrations decreased by 39.4% (95% CI: -43.6; -34.9%). This decline was associated with an increase in fasting hunger (r = -0.42; P < 0.01), desire to eat (r = -0.39; P < 0.05) and total appetite (r = -0.38; P < 0.05). Furthermore, the association between fasting leptin concentrations and fasting appetite levels became stronger during the energy restriction period (for total appetite: day 0 r = -0.15, P = 0.32; day 2 r = -0.31, P =< 0.05; day 4 r = -0.41, P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The acute proportional reduction in fasting leptin after 4-day energy restriction is associated with an increase in self-perceived appetite. Additionally, the inverse association between proportional fasting leptin concentrations and self-perceived appetite response becomes stronger as energy restriction is prolonged. These findings suggest that leptin has an instrumental role in restoring energy balance in humans through the expression of appetite.
    • A fatal case of metastatic squamous cell carcinoma in a patient with myositis ossificans traumatica.

      Vlasveld, I N; Scheper, H; Stalenhoef, J; Baas, J M; van Dissel, J (2017-07)
      Myositis ossificans traumatica is a rare disease associated with chronic wounds and fistulae. Chronic ulcers, fistulae and wounds can transform into squamous cell carcinoma, the so-called Marjolin's ulcer. We describe a rapid, progressive and fulminant course of a metastatic squamous cell carcinoma arising from a chronic wound in a patient with myositis ossificans traumatica.
    • Fatal diphtheria myocarditis in a 3-year-old girl-related to late availability and administration of antitoxin?

      Van Damme, Karlijn; Peeters, Natasja; Jorens, Philippe G; Boiy, Tine; Deplancke, Marjan; Audiens, Hilde; Wojciechowski, Marek; De Dooy, Jozef; Te Wierik, Margreet; Vlieghe, Erika (2017-09-29)
      Sporadic cases of diphtheria are very rare throughout Europe. A 3-year-old incompletely vaccinated girl was admitted with pharyngotonsillitis caused by diphtheria. On day 9 of her illness, renal and cardiac failure with a third-degree AV-block occurred. Unfortunately, she died within 36 h of admission to intensive care, despite pacemaker placement, the administration of antibiotics and diphtheria antitoxin. The delayed antitoxin administration 7 days after admission to hospital was related to a lack of availability and knowledge of its availability in Europe and this is likely to have contributed to the unfavourable outcome.
    • Fatalities, Cerebral Hemorrhage, and Severe Cardiovascular Toxicity After Exposure to the New Psychoactive Substance 4-Fluoroamphetamine: A Prospective Cohort Study.

      Hondebrink, Laura; Nugteren-van Lonkhuyzen, Johanna J; Rietjens, Saskia J; Brunt, Tibor M; Venhuis, Bastiaan; Soerdjbalie-Maikoe, Vidija; Smink, Beitske E; van Riel, Antoinette J H P; de Vries, Irma (2017-09-29)
      We study adverse health effects after use of the new psychoactive substance 4-fluoroamphetamine.
    • The fate and toxicity of Pb-based perovskite nanoparticles on soil bacterial community: Impacts of pH, humic acid, and divalent cations.

      Zhai, Yujia; Wang, Zhuang; Wang, Guiyin; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; Vijver, Martina G (2020-06-01)
    • Fate modelling of nanoparticle releases in LCA: An integrative approach towards “USEtox4Nano”

      Salieri, Beatrice; Hischier, Roland; Quik, Joris T.K.; Jolliet, Olivier (2019-01)
    • Fc-Mediated Antibody Effector Functions During Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection and Disease.

      van Erp, Elisabeth A; Luytjes, Willem; Ferwerda, Gerben; van Kasteren, Puck B (2019-01-01)
      Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of severe lower respiratory tract infections and hospitalization in infants under 1 year of age and there is currently no market-approved vaccine available. For protection against infection, young children mainly depend on their innate immune system and maternal antibodies. Traditionally, antibody-mediated protection against viral infections is thought to be mediated by direct binding of antibodies to viral particles, resulting in virus neutralization. However, in the case of RSV, virus neutralization titers do not provide an adequate correlate of protection. The current lack of understanding of the mechanisms by which antibodies can protect against RSV infection and disease or, alternatively, contribute to disease severity, hampers the design of safe and effective vaccines against this virus. Importantly, neutralization is only one of many mechanisms by which antibodies can interfere with viral infection. Antibodies consist of two structural regions: a variable fragment (Fab) that mediates antigen binding and a constant fragment (Fc) that mediates downstream effector functions via its interaction with Fc-receptors on (innate) immune cells or with C1q, the recognition molecule of the complement system. The interaction with Fc-receptors can lead to killing of virus-infected cells through a variety of immune effector mechanisms, including antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP). Antibody-mediated complement activation may lead to complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC). In addition, both Fc-receptor interactions and complement activation can exert a broad range of immunomodulatory functions. Recent studies have emphasized the importance of Fc-mediated antibody effector functions in both protection and pathogenesis for various infectious agents. In this review article, we aim to provide a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge on Fc-mediated antibody effector functions in the context of RSV infection, discuss their potential role in establishing the balance between protection and pathogenesis, and point out important gaps in our understanding of these processes. Furthermore, we elaborate on the regulation of these effector functions on both the cellular and humoral side. Finally, we discuss the implications of Fc-mediated antibody effector functions for the rational design of safe and effective vaccines and monoclonal antibody therapies against RSV.
    • Feasibility of Electronic Health Information and Surveillance System (eHISS) for disease symptom monitoring: A case of rural Ghana.

      Mohammed, Aliyu; Franke, Konstantin; Boakye Okyere, Portia; Brinkel, Johanna; Bonačić Marinovic, Axel; Kreuels, Benno; Krumkamp, Ralf; Fobil, Julius; May, Jürgen; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis (2018)
      The current surge of mobile phone use in many African countries creates the opportunity to provide caregivers with limited access to the health care system with vital health recommendations. At the same time such communication system can be utilised to collect tempero-spatial data on disease symptoms.
    • Feasibility of manufacturing tobacco with very low nicotine levels.

      Havermans, A; Pieper, E; Henkler-Stephani, R; Talhout, R (2020-11-12)
    • Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Neurological Disorders.

      Vendrik, Karuna E W; Ooijevaar, Rogier E; de Jong, Pieter R C; Laman, Jon D; van Oosten, Bob W; van Hilten, Jacobus J; Ducarmon, Quinten R; Keller, Josbert J; Kuijper, Eduard J; Contarino, Maria Fiorella (2020-01-01)
      Background: Several studies suggested an important role of the gut microbiota in the pathophysiology of neurological disorders, implying that alteration of the gut microbiota might serve as a treatment strategy. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is currently the most effective gut microbiota intervention and an accepted treatment for recurrent Clostridioides difficile infections. To evaluate indications of FMT for patients with neurological disorders, we summarized the available literature on FMT. In addition, we provide suggestions for future directions. Methods: In July 2019, five main databases were searched for studies and case descriptions on FMT in neurological disorders in humans or animal models. In addition, the ClinicalTrials.gov website was consulted for registered planned and ongoing trials. Results: Of 541 identified studies, 34 were included in the analysis. Clinical trials with FMT have been performed in patients with autism spectrum disorder and showed beneficial effects on neurological symptoms. For multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease, several animal studies suggested a positive effect of FMT, supported by some human case reports. For epilepsy, Tourette syndrome, and diabetic neuropathy some studies suggested a beneficial effect of FMT, but evidence was restricted to case reports and limited numbers of animal studies. For stroke, Alzheimer's disease and Guillain-Barré syndrome only studies with animal models were identified. These studies suggested a potential beneficial effect of healthy donor FMT. In contrast, one study with an animal model for stroke showed increased mortality after FMT. For Guillain-Barré only one study was identified. Whether positive findings from animal studies can be confirmed in the treatment of human diseases awaits to be seen. Several trials with FMT as treatment for the above mentioned neurological disorders are planned or ongoing, as well as for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Conclusions: Preliminary literature suggests that FMT may be a promising treatment option for several neurological disorders. However, available evidence is still scanty and some contrasting results were observed. A limited number of studies in humans have been performed or are ongoing, while for some disorders only animal experiments have been conducted. Large double-blinded randomized controlled trials are needed to further elucidate the effect of FMT in neurological disorders.
    • Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Influences Procarcinogenic Escherichia coli in Recipient Recurrent Clostridioides difficile Patients.

      Nooij, Sam; Ducarmon, Quinten R; Laros, Jeroen F J; Zwittink, Romy D; Norman, Jason M; Smits, Wiep Klaas; Verspaget, Hein W; Keller, Josbert J; Terveer, Elisabeth M; Kuijper, Ed J (2021-06-11)
      Patients with multiple recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (rCDI) have a disturbed gut microbiota that can be restored by fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). Despite extensive screening, healthy feces donors may carry bacteria in their intestinal tract that could have long-term health effects, such as potentially procarcinogenic polyketide synthase-positive (pks+) Escherichia coli. Here, we aim to determine whether the pks abundance and persistence of pks+E coli is influenced by pks status of the donor feces.