• Microbiota-associated risk factors for asymptomatic gut colonisation with multi-drug-resistant organisms in a Dutch nursing home.

      Ducarmon, Quinten R; Terveer, Elisabeth M; Nooij, Sam; Bloem, Michelle N; Vendrik, Karuna E W; Caljouw, Monique A A; Sanders, Ingrid M J G; van Dorp, Sofie M; Wong, Man C; Zwittink, Romy D; et al. (2021-04-07)
    • Face-touching behavior as a possible correlate of mask-wearing: A video observational study of public place incidents during the COVID-19 pandemic.

      Liebst, Lasse S; Ejbye-Ernst, Peter; de Bruin, Marijn; Thomas, Josephine; Lindegaard, Marie R (2021-04-05)
    • Options for imaging cellular therapeutics in vivo: a multi-stakeholder perspective.

      Helfer, Brooke M; Ponomarev, Vladimir; Patrick, P Stephen; Blower, Philip J; Feitel, Alexandra; Fruhwirth, Gilbert O; Jackman, Shawna; Pereira Mouriès, Lucilia; Park, Margriet V D Z; Srinivas, Mangala; et al. (2021-04-05)
    • Integrative transnational analysis to dissect tuberculosis transmission events along the migratory route from Africa to Europe.

      Martínez-Lirola, Miguel; Jajou, Rana; Mathys, Vanessa; Martin, Anandi; Cabibbe, Andrea Maurizio; Valera, Ana; Sola-Campoy, Pedro J; Abascal, Estefanía; Rodríguez-Maus, Sandra; Garrido-Cárdenas, Jose Antonio; et al. (2021-04-05)
    • Inflammatory response in human alveolar epithelial cells after TiO NPs or ZnO NPs exposure: Inhibition of surfactant protein A expression as an indicator for loss of lung function.

      Jiménez-Chávez, A; Solorio-Rodríguez, A; Escamilla-Rivera, V; Leseman, D; Morales-Rubio, R; Uribe-Ramírez, M; Campos-Villegas, L; Medina-Ramírez, I E; Arreola-Mendoza, L; Cassee, F R; et al. (2021-04-03)
      The increasing use of metal oxide nanoparticles (MONPs) as TiO2 NPs or ZnO NPs has led to environmental release and human exposure. The respiratory system, effects on lamellar bodies and surfactant protein A (SP-A) of pneumocytes, can be importantly affected. Exposure of human alveolar epithelial cells (A549) induced differential responses; a higher persistence of TiO2 in cell surface and uptake (measured by Atomic Force Microscopy) and sustained inflammatory response (by means of TNF-α, IL-10, and IL-6 release) and ROS generation were observed, whereas ZnO showed a modest response and low numbers in cell surface. A reduction in SP-A levels at 24 h of exposure to TiO2 NPs (concentration-dependent) or ZnO NPs (the higher concentration) was also observed, reversed by blocking the inflammatory response (by the inhibition of IL-6). Loss of SP-A represents a relevant target of MONPs-induced inflammatory response that could contribute to cellular damage and loss of lung function.
    • Variability of in vivo potency tests of Diphtheria, Tetanus and acellular Pertussis (DTaP) vaccines.

      Stalpers, Coen A L; Retmana, Irene A; Pennings, Jeroen L A; Vandebriel, Rob J; Hendriksen, Coenraad F M; Akkermans, Arnoud M; Hoefnagel, Marcel H N (2021-04-03)
    • High infection secondary attack rates of SARS-CoV-2 in Dutch households revealed by dense sampling.

      Reukers, Daphne F M; van Boven, Michiel; Meijer, Adam; Rots, Nynke; Reusken, Chantal; Roof, Inge; van Gageldonk-Lafeber, Arianne B; van der Hoek, Wim; van den Hof, Susan (2021-04-02)
    • Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment for Airborne Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 via Breathing, Speaking, Singing, Coughing, and Sneezing.

      Schijven, Jack; Vermeulen, Lucie C; Swart, Arno; Meijer, Adam; Duizer, Erwin; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria (2021-04-01)
      A risk assessment model, AirCoV2, for exposure to SARS-CoV-2 particles in aerosol droplets was developed. Previously published data on droplets expelled by breathing, speaking, singing, coughing, and sneezing by an infected person were used as inputs. Scenarios encompassed virus concentration, exposure time, and ventilation. Newly collected data of virus RNA copies in mucus from patients are presented.
    • What influences the outcome of active disinvestment processes in healthcare? A qualitative interview study on five recent cases of active disinvestment.

      Rotteveel, Adriënne H; Lambooij, Mattijs S; van de Rijt, Joline J A; van Exel, Job; Moons, Karel G M; de Wit, G Ardine (2021-04-01)
    • Implications of the school-household network structure on SARS-CoV-2 transmission under school reopening strategies in England.

      Munday, James D; Sherratt, Katharine; Meakin, Sophie; Endo, Akira; Pearson, Carl A B; Hellewell, Joel; Abbott, Sam; Bosse, Nikos I; Atkins, Katherine E; Wallinga, Jacco; et al. (2021-03-29)
    • Changes in Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Caused by Serotype 1 Following Introduction of PCV10 and PCV13: Findings from the PSERENADE Project.

      Bennett, Julia C; Hetrich, Marissa K; Quesada, Maria Garcia; Sinkevitch, Jenna N; Knoll, Maria Deloria; Feikin, Daniel R; Zeger, Scott L; Kagucia, Eunice W; Cohen, Adam L; Ampofo, Krow; et al. (2021-03-27)
      Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 1 (ST1) was an important cause of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) globally before the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) containing ST1 antigen. The Pneumococcal Serotype Replacement and Distribution Estimation (PSERENADE) project gathered ST1 IPD surveillance data from sites globally and aimed to estimate PCV10/13 impact on ST1 IPD incidence. We estimated ST1 IPD incidence rate ratios (IRRs) comparing the pre-PCV10/13 period to each post-PCV10/13 year by site using a Bayesian multi-level, mixed-effects Poisson regression and all-site IRRs using a linear mixed-effects regression (N = 45 sites). Following PCV10/13 introduction, the incidence rate (IR) of ST1 IPD declined among all ages. After six years of PCV10/13 use, the all-site IRR was 0.05 (95% credibility interval 0.04-0.06) for all ages, 0.05 (0.04-0.05) for <5 years of age, 0.08 (0.06-0.09) for 5-17 years, 0.06 (0.05-0.08) for 18-49 years, 0.06 (0.05-0.07) for 50-64 years, and 0.05 (0.04-0.06) for ≥65 years. PCV10/13 use in infant immunization programs was followed by a 95% reduction in ST1 IPD in all ages after approximately 6 years. Limited data availability from the highest ST1 disease burden countries using a 3+0 schedule constrains generalizability and data from these settings are needed.
    • Recommendations for the introduction of metagenomic next-generation sequencing in clinical virology, part II: bioinformatic analysis and reporting.

      de Vries, Jutte J C; Brown, Julianne R; Couto, Natacha; Beer, Martin; Le Mercier, Philippe; Sidorov, Igor; Papa, Anna; Fischer, Nicole; Oude Munnink, Bas B; Rodriquez, Christophe; et al. (2021-03-26)
    • Invasive pneumococcal disease among adults with hematological and solid organ malignancies: a population-based cohort study.

      Garcia Garrido, Hannah M; Knol, Mirjam J; Heijmans, Jarom; van Sorge, Nina M; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Klümpen, Heinz-Josef; Grobusch, Martin P; Goorhuis, Abraham (2021-03-26)
    • Circulation of Species and Their Exposure to Humans through .

      Azagi, Tal; Jaarsma, Ryanne I; Docters van Leeuwen, Arieke; Fonville, Manoj; Maas, Miriam; Franssen, Frits F J; Kik, Marja; Rijks, Jolianne M; Montizaan, Margriet G; Groenevelt, Margit; et al. (2021-03-24)
      Human babesiosis in Europe has been attributed to infection with Babesia divergens and, to a lesser extent, with Babesia venatorum and Babesia microti, which are all transmitted to humans through a bite of Ixodes ricinus. These Babesia species circulate in the Netherlands, but autochthonous human babesiosis cases have not been reported so far. To gain more insight into the natural sources of these Babesia species, their presence in reservoir hosts and in I. ricinus was examined. Moreover, part of the ticks were tested for co-infections with other tick borne pathogens. In a cross-sectional study, qPCR-detection was used to determine the presence of Babesia species in 4611 tissue samples from 27 mammalian species and 13 bird species. Reverse line blotting (RLB) and qPCR detection of Babesia species were used to test 25,849 questing I. ricinus. Fragments of the 18S rDNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene from PCR-positive isolates were sequenced for confirmation and species identification and species-specific PCR reactions were performed on samples with suspected mixed infections. Babesia microti was found in two widespread rodent species: Myodes glareolus and Apodemus sylvaticus, whereas B. divergens was detected in the geographically restricted Cervus elaphus and Bison bonasus, and occasionally in free-ranging Ovis aries. B. venatorum was detected in the ubiquitous Capreolus capreolus, and occasionally in free-ranging O. aries. Species-specific PCR revealed co-infections in C. capreolus and C. elaphus, resulting in higher prevalence of B. venatorum and B. divergens than disclosed by qPCR detection, followed by 18S rDNA and COI sequencing. The non-zoonotic Babesia species found were Babesia capreoli, Babesia vulpes, Babesia sp. deer clade, and badger-associated Babesia species. The infection rate of zoonotic Babesia species in questing I. ricinus ticks was higher for Babesia clade I (2.6%) than Babesia clade X (1.9%). Co-infection of B. microti with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Neoehrlichia mikurensis in questing nymphs occurred more than expected, which reflects their mutual reservoir hosts, and suggests the possibility of co-transmission of these three pathogens to humans during a tick bite. The ubiquitous spread and abundance of B. microti and B. venatorum in their reservoir hosts and questing ticks imply some level of human exposure through tick bites. The restricted distribution of the wild reservoir hosts for B. divergens and its low infection rate in ticks might contribute to the absence of reported autochthonous cases of human babesiosis in the Netherlands.
    • The association of vitamin D with survival in colorectal cancer patients depends on antioxidant capacity.

      Boakye, Daniel; Jansen, Lina; Schöttker, Ben; Jansen, Eugene H J M; Halama, Niels; Maalmi, Haifa; Gào, Xin; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hoffmeister, Michael; Brenner, Hermann (2021-03-19)
    • Toxicity assessment of industrial engineered and airborne process-generated nanoparticles in a 3D human airway epithelial model.

      Bessa, Maria João; Brandão, Fátima; Fokkens, Paul; Cassee, Flemming R; Salmatonidis, Apostolos; Viana, Mar; Vulpoi, Adriana; Simon, Simion; Monfort, Eliseo; Teixeira, João Paulo; et al. (2021-03-18)
      The advanced ceramic technology has been pointed out as a potentially relevant case of occupational exposure to nanoparticles (NP). Not only when nanoscale powders are being used for production, but also in the high-temperature processing of ceramic materials there is also a high potential for NP release into the workplace environment. In vitro toxicity of engineered NP (ENP) [antimony tin oxide (Sb2O3•SnO2; ATO); zirconium oxide (ZrO2)], as well as process-generated NP (PGNP), and fine particles (PGFP), was assessed in MucilAir™ cultures at air-liquid interface (ALI). Cultures were exposed during three consecutive days to varying doses of the aerosolized NP. General cytotoxicity [lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, WST-1 metabolization], (oxidative) DNA damage, and the levels of pro-inflammatory mediators (IL-8 and MCP-1) were assessed. Data revealed that ENP (5.56 µg ATO/cm2 and 10.98 µg ZrO2/cm2) only caused mild cytotoxicity at early timepoints (24 h), whereas cells seemed to recover quickly since no significant changes in cytotoxicity were observed at late timepoints (72 h). No meaningful effects of the ENP were observed regarding DNA damage and cytokine levels. PGFP affected cell viability at dose levels as low as ∼9 µg/cm2, which was not seen for PGNP. However, exposure to PGNP (∼4.5 µg/cm2) caused an increase in oxidative DNA damage. These results indicated that PGFP and PGNP exhibit higher toxicity potential than ENP in mass per area unit. However, the presence of a mucociliary apparatus, as it occurs in vivo as a defense mechanism, seems to considerably attenuate the observed toxic effects. Our findings highlight the potential hazard associated with exposure to incidental NP in industrial settings.
    • Development of a Measles and Rubella Multiplex Bead Serological Assay for Assessing Population Immunity.

      Coughlin, Melissa M; Matson, Zachary; Sowers, Sun B; Priest, Jeffrey W; Smits, Gaby P; van der Klis, Fiona R M; Mitchell, Alexandria; Hickman, Carole J; Scobie, Heather M; Goodson, James L; et al. (2021-03-17)
      Serosurveys are important tools for estimating population immunity and providing immunization activity guidance. The measles and rubella multiplex bead assay (MBA) offers multiple advantages over standard serological assays and was validated by comparison with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the measles plaque reduction neutralization (PRN) assay. Results from a laboratory-produced purified measles whole virus antigen MBA (MeV WVAL) correlated better with ELISA and PRN than results from the baculovirus-expressed measles nucleoprotein (N) MBA. Therefore, a commercially produced whole virus antigen (MeV WVAC) was evaluated. Serum IgG antibody concentrations correlated significantly with a strong linear relationship between the MeV WVAC and MeV WVAL MBAs (R=0.962, R2=0.926). IgG concentrations from the MeV WVAC MBA showed strong correlation with PRN titers (R=0.846) with a linear relationship comparable to values obtained with the MeV WVAL MBA and PRN assay (R2=0.716 and R2=0.768, respectively). Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis of the MeV WVAC using PRN titer as the comparator resulted in a seroprotection cutoff of 153 mIU/ml, similar to the established correlate of protection of 120 mIU/ml, with a sensitivity of 98% and a specificity of 84%. IgG concentrations correlated strongly between the rubella WVA MBA and ELISA (R=0.959 and R2=0.919). ROC analysis of the rubella MBA using ELISA as the comparator yielded a cutoff of 9.36 IU/ml, similar to the accepted cutoff of 10 IU/ml for seroprotection, with a sensitivity of 99% and a specificity of 100%. These results support use of the MBA for multi-antigen serosurveys assessing measles and rubella population immunity.
    • Self-rated health in individuals with and without disease is associated with multiple biomarkers representing multiple biological domains.

      Kananen, L; Enroth, L; Raitanen, J; Jylhävä, J; Bürkle, A; Moreno-Villanueva, M; Bernhardt, J; Toussaint, O; Grubeck-Loebenstein, B; Malavolta, M; et al. (2021-03-17)
    • Real-World Treatment Costs and Care Utilization in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder With and Without Psychiatric Comorbidities in Specialist Mental Healthcare.

      Kan, Kaying; Lokkerbol, Joran; Jörg, Frederike; Visser, Ellen; Schoevers, Robert A; Feenstra, Talitha L (2021-03-16)
    • Method for extraction of nanoscale plastic debris from soil.

      Abdolahpur Monikh, Fazel; Doornhein, Nikki; Romeijn, Stefan; Vijver, Martina G; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M (2021-03-15)