• Measuring the Effect of Circular Public Procurement on Government’s Environmental Impact

      Zijp, M; Dekker, E; de Valk, E; Hollander, A; Posthuma, L; et al. (2022-09-26)
    • Comparing Multiple Locus Variable-Number Tandem Repeat Analyses with Whole-Genome Sequencing as Typing Method for Salmonella Enteritidis Surveillance in The Netherlands, January 2019 to March 2020.

      Pijnacker, Roan; van den Beld, Maaike; van der Zwaluw, Kim; Verbruggen, Anjo; Coipan, Claudia; Segura, Alejandra Hernandez; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Franz, Eelco; Bosch, Thijs (2022-09-19)
      In the Netherlands, whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was implemented as routine typing tool for Salmonella Enteritidis isolates in 2019. Multiple locus variable-number tandem repeat analyses (MLVA) was performed in parallel. The objective was to determine the concordance of MLVA and WGS as typing methods for S. Enteritidis isolates. We included S. Enteritidis isolates from patients that were subtyped using MLVA and WGS-based core-genome Multilocus Sequence Typing (cgMLST) as part of the national laboratory surveillance of Salmonella during January 2019 to March 2020. The concordance of clustering based on MLVA and cgMLST, with a distance of ≤5 alleles, was assessed using the Fowlkes-Mallows (FM) index, and their discriminatory power using Simpson's diversity index. Of 439 isolates in total, 404 (92%) were typed as 32 clusters based on MLVA, with a median size of 4 isolates (range:2 to 141 isolates). Based on cgMLST, 313 (71%) isolates were typed as 48 clusters, with a median size of 3 isolates (range:2 to 39 isolates). The FM index was 0.34 on a scale from 0 to 1, where a higher value indicates greater similarity between the typing methods. The Simpson's diversity index of MLVA and cgMLST was 0.860 and 0.974, respectively. The median cgMLST distance between isolates with the same MLVA type was 27 alleles (interquartile range [IQR]:17 to 34 alleles), and 2 alleles within cgMLST clusters (IQR:1-5 alleles). This study shows the higher discriminatory power of WGS over MLVA and a poor concordance between both typing methods regarding clustering of S. Enteritidis isolates. IMPORTANCE Salmonella is the most frequently reported agent causing foodborne outbreaks and the second most common zoonoses in the European Union. The incidence of the most dominant serotype Enteritidis has increased in recent years. To differentiate between Salmonella isolates, traditional typing methods such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multiple locus variable-number tandem repeat analyses (MLVA) are increasingly replaced with whole-genome sequencing (WGS). This study compared MLVA and WGS-based core-genome Multilocus Sequence Typing (cgMLST) as typing tools for S. Enteritidis isolates that were collected as part of the national Salmonella surveillance in the Netherlands. We found a higher discriminatory power of WGS-based cgMLST over MLVA, as well as a poor concordance between both typing methods regarding clustering of S. Enteritidis isolates. This is especially relevant for cluster delineation in outbreak investigations and confirmation of the outbreak source in trace-back investigations.
    • Nasopharyngeal carriage of pneumococcus in children in England up to ten years after PCV13 introduction: persistence of serotypes 3 and 19A and emergence of 7C.

      Tiley, Karen S; Ratcliffe, Helen; Voysey, Merryn; Jefferies, Kimberley; Sinclair, Gemma; Carr, Melanie; Colin-Jones, Rachel; Smith, David; Bowman, Jaclyn; Hart, Thomas; et al. (2022-09-21)
    • Methodological Approaches for Risk Assessment of Tobacco and Related Products.

      Staal, Yvonne C M; Bos, Peter M J; Talhout, Reinskje (2022-08-24)
    • A One Health Evaluation of the Surveillance Systems on Tick-Borne Diseases in the Netherlands, Spain and Italy.

      Garcia-Vozmediano, Aitor; De Meneghi, Daniele; Sprong, Hein; Portillo, Aránzazu; Oteo, José A; Tomassone, Laura (2022-09-14)
    • Approaches to estimating clearance rates for Human Papillomavirus groupings: a systematic review and real data examples.

      Wijstma, Eline S; Jongen, Vita W; Alberts, Catharina J; de Melker, Hester E; Hoes, Joske; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F (2022-09-21)
    • 20 Years of ICF-International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: Uses and Applications around the World.

      Leonardi, Matilde; Lee, Haejung; Kostanjsek, Nenad; Fornari, Arianna; Raggi, Alberto; Martinuzzi, Andrea; Yáñez, Manuel; Almborg, Ann-Helene; Fresk, Magdalena; Besstrashnova, Yanina; et al. (2022-09-08)
    • Sugars and Sweeteners in Tobacco and Nicotine Products: FDA Regulatory Implications.

      Rezk-Hanna, Mary; Talhout, Reinskje; Jordt, Sven-Eric (2022-09-23)
    • Public engagement in decision-making regarding the management of the COVID-19 epidemic: Views and expectations of the 'publics'.

      Kemper, Sophie; Kupper, Frank; Kengne Kamga, Sandra; Brabers, Anne; de Jong, Judith; Bongers, Marloes; Timen, Aura (2022-09-23)
    • Changing epidemiology of Enteritidis human infections in the Netherlands and Belgium, 2006 to 2019: a registry-based population study.

      Chanamé Pinedo, Linda; Franz, Eelco; van den Beld, Maaike; Van Goethem, Nina; Mattheus, Wesley; Veldman, Kees; Bosch, Thijs; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Pijnacker, Roan
      BackgroundSalmonellosis remains the second most common zoonosis in the European Union despite a long-term decreasing trend. However, this trend has been reported to have stagnated in recent years, particularly for Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (SE).AimTo describe temporal changes in the incidence of SE human infections, and in its associated factors between 2006 and 2019. In addition, we aim to determine which factors influenced the stagnated trend seen in recent years.MethodsData on culture-confirmed SE human infections from national surveillance registries in the Netherlands and Belgium between 2006 and 2019 were analysed using multivariable negative-binomial regression models with restricted cubic splines.ResultsSE incidence was significantly higher in summer and autumn than winter, in persons aged 0-4 years and 5-14 years than in persons ≥ 60 years, and increased with increasing proportions of travel-related and resistant SE infections. SE incidence decreased significantly in both countries until 2015, followed by an increasing trend, which was particularly pronounced in the Netherlands. Potential SE outbreaks in both countries and invasive infections in the Netherlands also increased after 2015.ConclusionThe increase in potential outbreaks and invasive infections since 2015 may partially explain the observed reversal of the decreasing trend. While these results provide insights into the possible causes of this trend reversal, attention should also be given to factors known to influence SE epidemiology at primary (animal) production and pathogen genomic levels.
    • Quantifying the trophic transfer of sub-micron plastics in an assembled food chain

      Abdolahpul Monikh, F; Holm, S; Kortet, R; Bandekar, M; Kekäläinen, J; Peijnenburg, W; et al. (2022-09-20)
    • Air pollution from livestock farms and the oropharyngeal microbiome of COPD patients and controls.

      van Kersen, Warner; Bossers, Alex; de Steenhuijsen Piters, Wouter A A; de Rooij, Myrna M T; Bonten, Marc; Fluit, Ad C; Heederik, Dick; Paganelli, Fernanda L; Rogers, Malbert; Viveen, Marco; et al. (2022-09-05)
      Air pollution from livestock farms is known to affect respiratory health of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The mechanisms behind this relationship, however, remain poorly understood. We hypothesise that air pollutants could influence respiratory health through modulation of the airway microbiome. Therefore, we studied associations between air pollution exposure and the oropharyngeal microbiota (OPM) composition of COPD patients and controls in a livestock-dense area. Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from 99 community-based (mostly mild) COPD cases and 184 controls (baseline), and after 6 and 12 weeks. Participants were non-smokers or former smokers. Annual average livestock-related outdoor air pollution at the home address was predicted using dispersion modelling. OPM composition was analysed using 16S rRNA-based sequencing in all baseline samples and 6-week and 12-week repeated samples of 20 randomly selected subjects (n = 323 samples). A random selection of negative control swabs, taken every sampling day, were also included in the downstream analysis. Both farm-emitted endotoxin and PM10 levels were associated with increased OPM richness in COPD patients (p < 0.05) but not in controls. COPD case-control status was not associated with community structure, while correcting for known confounders (multivariate PERMANOVA p > 0.05). However, members of the genus Streptococcus were more abundant in COPD patients (Benjamini-Hochberg adjusted p < 0.01). Moderate correlation was found between ordinations of 20 subjects analysed at 0, 6, and 12 weeks (Procrustes r = 0.52 to 0.66; p < 0.05; Principal coordinate analysis of Bray-Curtis dissimilarity), indicating that the OPM is relatively stable over a 12 week period and that a single sample sufficiently represents the OPM. Air pollution from livestock farms is associated with OPM richness of COPD patients, suggesting that the OPM of COPD patients is susceptible to alterations induced by exposure to air pollutants.
    • Differential vaccine-induced kinetics of humoral and cellular immune responses in SARS-CoV-2 naive and convalescent health care workers.

      Smit, Wouter; Thijsen, Steven; van der Kieft, Robert; van Tol, Sophie; Reimerink, Johan; Reusken, Chantal; Rumke, Lidewij; Bossink, Ailko; Limonard, Gijs; Heron, Michiel (2022-09-11)
    • Social clustering of unvaccinated children in schools in the Netherlands.

      Klinkenberg, Don; van Hoek, Albert Jan; Veldhuijzen, Irene; Hahné, Susan; Wallinga, Jacco (2022-09-12)
    • Regional importation and asymmetric within-country spread of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern in the Netherlands.

      Han, Alvin X; Kozanli, Eva; Koopsen, Jelle; Vennema, Harry; Hajji, Karim; Kroneman, Annelies; Van Walle, Ivo; Klinkenberg, Don; Wallinga, Jacco; Russell, Colin A; et al. (2022-09-13)
    • Diagnostic work-up of urinary tract infections in pregnancy: study protocol of a prospective cohort study.

      Werter, Dominique Esmée; Kazemier, Brenda M; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth; de Rotte, Maurits C F J; Kuil, Sacha D; Pajkrt, Eva; Schneeberger, Caroline (2022-09-14)
    • Mortality and Morbidity Effects of Long-Term Exposure to Low-Level PM, BC, NO, and O: An Analysis of European Cohorts in the ELAPSE Project.

      Bert, Brunekreef; Maciej, Strak; Jie, Chen; Zorana, J Andersen; Richard, Atkinson; Mariska, Bauwelinck; Tom, Bellander; Marie-Christine, Boutron; Jørgen, Brandt; Iain, Carey; et al. (2022-09-20)
      Epidemiological cohort studies have consistently found associations between long-term exposure to outdoor air pollution and a range of morbidity and mortality endpoints. Recent evaluations by the World Health Organization and the Global Burden of Disease study have suggested that these associations may be nonlinear and may persist at very low concentrations. Studies conducted in North America in particular have suggested that associations with mortality persisted at concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) well below current air quality standards and guidelines. The uncertainty about the shape of the concentration-response function at the low end of the concentration distribution, related to the scarcity of observations in the lowest range, was the basis of the current project. Previous studies have focused on PM2.5, but increasingly associations with nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are being reported, particularly in studies that accounted for the fine spatial scale variation of NO2. Very few studies have evaluated the effects of long-term exposure to low concentrations of ozone (O3). Health effects of black carbon (BC), representing primary combustion particles, have not been studied in most large cohort studies of PM2.5. Cohort studies assessing health effects of particle composition, including elements from nontailpipe traffic emissions (iron, copper, and zinc) and secondary aerosol (sulfur) have been few in number and reported inconsistent results.