• bla OXA-48-like genome architecture among carbapenemase-producing and in the Netherlands.

      Hendrickx, Antoni P A; Landman, Fabian; de Haan, Angela; Witteveen, Sandra; van Santen-Verheuvel, Marga G; Schouls, Leo M; The Dutch Cpe Surveillance Study Group
      Carbapenem-hydrolysing enzymes belonging to the OXA-48-like group are encoded by blaOXA-48-like alleles and are abundant among Enterobacterales in the Netherlands. Therefore, the objective here was to investigate the characteristics, gene content and diversity of the blaOXA-48-like carrying plasmids and chromosomes of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae collected in the Dutch national surveillance from 2014 to 2019 in comparison with genome sequences from 29 countries. A combination of short-read genome sequencing with long-read sequencing enabled the reconstruction of 47 and 132 complete blaOXA-48-like plasmids for E. coli and K. pneumoniae, respectively. Seven distinct plasmid groups designated as pOXA-48-1 to pOXA-48-5, pOXA-181 and pOXA-232 were identified in the Netherlands which were similar to internationally reported plasmids obtained from countries from North and South America, Europe, Asia and Oceania. The seven plasmid groups varied in size, G+C content, presence of antibiotic resistance genes, replicon family and gene content. The pOXA-48-1 to pOXA-48-5 plasmids were variable, and the pOXA-181 and pOXA-232 plasmids were conserved. The pOXA-48-1, pOXA-48-2, pOXA-48-3 and pOXA-48-5 groups contained a putative conjugation system, but this was absent in the pOXA-48-4, pOXA-181 and pOXA-232 plasmid groups. pOXA-48 plasmids contained the PemI antitoxin, while the pOXA-181 and pOXA-232 plasmids did not. Furthermore, the pOXA-181 plasmids carried a virB2-virB3-virB9-virB10-virB11 type IV secretion system, while the pOXA-48 plasmids and pOXA-232 lacked this system. A group of non-related pOXA-48 plasmids from the Netherlands contained different resistance genes, non-IncL-type replicons or no replicons. Whole genome multilocus sequence typing revealed that the blaOXA-48-like plasmids were found in a wide variety of genetic backgrounds in contrast to chromosomally encoded blaOXA-48-like alleles. Chromosomally localized blaOXA-48 and blaOXA-244 alleles were located on genetic elements of variable sizes and comprised regions of pOXA-48 plasmids. The blaOXA-48-like genetic element was flanked by a direct repeat upstream of IS1R, and was found at multiple locations in the chromosomes of E. coli. Lastly, K. pneumoniae isolates carrying blaOXA-48 or blaOXA-232 were mostly resistant for meropenem, whereas E. coli blaOXA-48, blaOXA-181 and chromosomal blaOXA-48 or blaOXA-244 isolates were mostly sensitive. In conclusion, the overall blaOXA-48-like plasmid population in the Netherlands is conserved and similar to that reported for other countries, confirming global dissemination of blaOXA-48-like plasmids. Variations in size, presence of antibiotic resistance genes and gene content impacted pOXA-48, pOXA-181 and pOXA-232 plasmid architecture.
    • Dominance of M1 clade among Dutch M1 Streptococcus pyogenes.

      Rümke, Lidewij W; de Gier, Brechje; Vestjens, Stefan M T; van der Ende, Arie; van Sorge, Nina M; Vlaminckx, Bart J M; Witteveen, Sandra; van Santen, Marga; Schouls, Leo M; Kuijper, Ed J (2020-01-01)
    • A genetic cluster of MDR complex ST78 harbouring a plasmid containing and in the Netherlands.

      Hendrickx, Antoni P A; Debast, Sylvia; Pérez-Vázquez, María; Schoffelen, Annelot F; Notermans, Daan W; Landman, Fabian; Wielders, Cornelia C H; Cañada Garcia, Javier E; Flipse, Jacky; de Haan, Angela; et al. (2021-05-12)
      To study the molecular characteristics of a genetic cluster of Enterobacter cloacae complex isolates collected in Dutch national surveillance in the period 2015-20 in the Netherlands.
    • Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus argenteus in the Netherlands: not a new arrival.

      Bank, Leonie E A; Bosch, Thijs; Schouls, Leo M; Weersink, Annemarie J L; Witteveen, Sandra; Wolffs, Petra F G; Nijhuis, Roel H T (2021-02-24)
    • Next-Generation Sequence Analysis Reveals Transfer of Methicillin Resistance to a Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Strain That Subsequently Caused a Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Outbreak: a Descriptive Study.

      Weterings, Veronica; Bosch, Thijs; Witteveen, Sandra; Landman, Fabian; Schouls, Leo; Kluytmans, Jan (2017-09)
      Resistance to methicillin in Staphylococcus aureus is caused primarily by the mecA gene, which is carried on a mobile genetic element, the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec). Horizontal transfer of this element is supposed to be an important factor in the emergence of new clones of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) but has been rarely observed in real time. In 2012, an outbreak occurred involving a health care worker (HCW) and three patients, all carrying a fusidic acid-resistant MRSA strain. The husband of the HCW was screened for MRSA carriage, but only a methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) strain, which was also resistant to fusidic acid, was detected. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) typing showed that both the MSSA and MRSA isolates were MT4053-MC0005. This finding led to the hypothesis that the MSSA strain acquired the SCCmec and subsequently caused an outbreak. To support this hypothesis, next-generation sequencing of the MSSA and MRSA isolates was performed. This study showed that the MSSA isolate clustered closely with the outbreak isolates based on whole-genome multilocus sequence typing and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis, with a genetic distance of 17 genes and 44 SNPs, respectively. Remarkably, there were relatively large differences in the mobile genetic elements in strains within and between individuals. The limited genetic distance between the MSSA and MRSA isolates in combination with a clear epidemiologic link supports the hypothesis that the MSSA isolate acquired a SCCmec and that the resulting MRSA strain caused an outbreak.
    • Outbreak of NDM-1-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in a Dutch Hospital, with Interspecies Transfer of the Resistance Plasmid and Unexpected Occurrence in Unrelated Health Care Centers.

      Bosch, Thijs; Lutgens, Suzanne P M; Hermans, Mirjam H A; Wever, Peter C; Schneeberger, Peter M; Renders, Nicole H M; Leenders, Alexander C A P; Kluytmans, Jan A J W; Schoffelen, Annelot; Notermans, Daan; et al. (2017-08)
      In the Netherlands, the number of cases of infection with New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM)-positive Enterobacteriaceae is low. Here, we report an outbreak of NDM-1-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae infection in a Dutch hospital with interspecies transfer of the resistance plasmid and unexpected occurrence in other unrelated health care centers (HCCs). Next-generation sequencing was performed on 250 carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates, including 42 NDM-positive isolates obtained from 29 persons at the outbreak site. Most outbreak isolates were K. pneumoniae (n = 26) and Escherichia coli (n = 11), but 5 isolates comprising three other Enterobacteriaceae species were also cultured. The 26 K. pneumoniae isolates had sequence type 873 (ST873), as did 7 unrelated K. pneumoniae isolates originating from five geographically dispersed HCCs. The 33 ST873 isolates that clustered closely together using whole-genome multilocus sequence typing (wgMLST) carried the same plasmids and had limited differences in the resistome. The 11 E. coli outbreak isolates showed great variety in STs, did not cluster using wgMLST, and showed considerable diversity in resistome and plasmid profiles. The blaNDM-1 gene-carrying plasmid present in the ST873 K. pneumoniae isolates was found in all the other Enterobacteriaceae species cultured at the outbreak location and in a single E. coli isolate from another HCC. We describe a hospital outbreak with an NDM-1-producing K. pneumoniae strain from an unknown source that was also found in patients from five other Dutch HCCs in the same time frame without an epidemiological link. Interspecies transfer of the resistance plasmid was observed in other Enterobacteriaceae species isolated at the outbreak location and in another HCC.
    • Plasmid diversity among genetically related Klebsiella pneumoniae bla and bla isolates collected in the Dutch national surveillance.

      Hendrickx, Antoni P A; Landman, Fabian; de Haan, Angela; Borst, Dyogo; Witteveen, Sandra; van Santen-Verheuvel, Marga G; van der Heide, Han G J; Schouls, Leo M (2020-10-08)
      Carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae emerged as a nosocomial pathogen causing morbidity and mortality in patients. For infection prevention it is important to track the spread of K. pneumoniae and its plasmids between patients. Therefore, the major aim was to recapitulate the contents and diversity of the plasmids of genetically related K. pneumoniae strains harboring the beta-lactamase gene blaKPC-2 or blaKPC-3 to determine their dissemination in the Netherlands and the former Dutch Caribbean islands from 2014 to 2019. Next-generation sequencing was combined with long-read third-generation sequencing to reconstruct 22 plasmids. wgMLST revealed five genetic clusters comprised of K. pneumoniae blaKPC-2 isolates and four clusters consisted of blaKPC-3 isolates. KpnCluster-019 blaKPC-2 isolates were found both in the Netherlands and the Caribbean islands, while blaKPC-3 cluster isolates only in the Netherlands. Each K. pneumoniae blaKPC-2 or blaKPC-3 cluster was characterized by a distinct resistome and plasmidome. However, the large and medium plasmids contained a variety of antibiotic resistance genes, conjugation machinery, cation transport systems, transposons, toxin/antitoxins, insertion sequences and prophage-related elements. The small plasmids carried genes implicated in virulence. Thus, implementing long-read plasmid sequencing analysis for K. pneumoniae surveillance provided important insights in the transmission of a KpnCluster-019 blaKPC-2 strain between the Netherlands and the Caribbean.