• Corrigendum to "Effects of extracellular polymeric substances on silver nanoparticle bioaccumulation and toxicity to Triticum aestivum L." [Chemosphere 280 (2021) 130863].

      Fu, Qing-Long; Zhong, Chun-Jie; Qing, Ting; Du, Zi-Yan; Li, Cheng-Cheng-; Fei, Jun-Jie; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M (2021-07-31)
    • Effects of extracellular polymeric substances on silver nanoparticle bioaccumulation and toxicity to Triticum aestivum L.

      Fu, Qing-Long; Zhong, Chun-Jie; Qing, Ting; Du, Zi-Yan; Li, Cheng-Cheng-; Fei, Jun-Jie; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M (2021-05-18)
      The potential effects of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) on the behavior and toxicity of silver nanoparticle (Ag-NPs) and silver sulfide nanoparticle (Ag2S-NPs) remains ambiguous. The interaction of EPS from Bacillus subtilis with Ag2S-NPs, metallic Ag-NPs, or ionic Ag, and the associated plant safety had been examined in this study. The biological impacts of Ag-NPs and Ag2S-NPs were Ag form-dependent and highly influenced by microbial EPS. Compared with metallic Ag-NPs, Ag2S-NPs exert inert biological impacts, as revealed by 3.44 times lower Ag bioaccumulation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings and nearly reduce plant biomass when wheat was subjected to 1.0 mg-Ag L-1 of Ag-NPs and Ag2S-NPs with the transfer factors of 151.56-930.87 vs. 12.52-131.81, respectively. These observations were coincident with the low dissolved Ag ([Ag]diss) in the Ag2S-NPs treatment than the Ag-NPs treatment (114.0 vs. 0.0791, μg L-1). Compared with the enhanced toxicity of Ag2S-NPs to wheat, Bacillus subtilis EPS significantly alleviate the phytotoxicity of Ag-NPs, as revealed by the relative root elongation (7.15-45.40% decrease vs. 2.39-11.75% increase), and malondialdehyde (1.47-83.22% increase vs. 8.57-25.25% decrease) and H2O2 (11.27-71.78% increase vs. 5.16-36.67% decrease) contents. These constrasting plant responses of B. subtilis EPS are mainly caused by their complexation property with toxic Ag+ and nutrient elements for wheat stressed by Ag-NPs and Ag2S-NPs, respectively. Our findings highlight the importance of rhizospheric EPS in affecting the biogeochemistry and ecotoxicity of metal nanoparticles including Ag-NPs and Ag2S-NPs in agricultural systems.
    • Integration of subcellular partitioning and chemical forms to understand silver nanoparticles toxicity to lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) under different exposure pathways.

      Li, Wei-Qi; Qing, Ting; Li, Cheng-Cheng; Li, Feng; Ge, Fei; Fei, Jun-Jie; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M (2020-06-07)
      The current understanding of the biological impacts of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is restricted to the direct interactions of the particles with biota. Very little is known about their intracellular fate and subsequent toxic consequences. In this research we investigated the uptake, internal fate (i,e., Ag subcellular partitioning and chemical forms), and phytotoxicity of AgNPs in lettuce following foliar versus root exposure. At the same AgNP exposure concentrations, root exposure led to more deleterious effects than foliar exposure as evidenced by a larger extent of reduced plant biomass, elevated oxidative damage, as well as a higher amount of ultrastructural injuries, despite foliar exposure leading to 2.6-7.6 times more Ag bioaccumulation. Both Ag subcellular partitioning and chemical forms present within the plant appeared to elucidate this difference in toxicity. Following foliar exposure, high Ag in biologically detoxified metals pool (29.2-53.0% by foliar exposure vs. 12.8-45.4% by root exposure) and low Ag proportion in inorganic form (6.1-11.9% vs. 14.1-19.8%) potentially associated with AgNPs tolerance. Silver-containing NPs (24.8-38.6 nm, 1.5-2.3 times larger than the initial size) were detected in lettuce plants exposed to NPs and to dissolved Ag+, suggesting possible transformation and/or aggregation of AgNPs in the plants. Our observations show that the exposure pathway significantly affects the uptake and internal fate of AgNPs, and thus the associated phytotoxicity. The results are an important contribution to improve risk assessment of NPs, and will be critical to ensure food security.