• Combined effects of dissolved organic matter, pH, ionic strength and halides on photodegradation of oxytetracycline in simulated estuarine waters.

      Zhang, Ya-Nan; Zhao, Jianchen; Zhou, Yangjian; Qu, Jiao; Chen, Jingwen; Li, Chao; Qin, Weichao; Zhao, Yahui; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M (2019-01-23)
      Estuarine waters of variable compositions are sinks for many micropollutants. The varying water properties can impact the photodegradation of organic pollutants. In this study, the combined effects of dissolved organic matter (DOM), pH, ionic strength, and halides on the photodegradation of the model organic pollutant oxytetracycline (OTC) were investigated. Suwannee River natural organic matter (SRNOM) was used as a representative DOM. The results showed that the observed photolysis rate constant (kobs) of OTC increased rapidly upon increase of pH. SRNOM induced a 11.0-17.9% decrease of the kobs for OTC. In the presence of SRNOM, the ionic strength and specific halide effects promote OTC photodegradation with a 39.2-84.2% and 7.1-28.8% increase of the kobs, respectively. The effects of SRNOM, ionic strength and halides on OTC photodegradation are pH-dependent. Direct photolysis half-lives (t1/2) of OTC were estimated in view of the more important role of direct photolysis compared to indirect photolysis. The estimated t1/2 values decreased from 187.4-206.6 d to 34.4-36.6 d as the pH increases in the Yellow River estuarine region. The results of this research demonstrate that the photodegradation rate of OTC increases rapidly in the gradient from river water to marine water in estuarine regions.
    • Trace amounts of fenofibrate acid sensitize the photodegradation of bezafibrate in effluents: Mechanisms, degradation pathways, and toxicity evaluation.

      Zhou, Yangjian; Zhao, Jianchen; Zhang, Ya-Nan; Qu, Jiao; Li, Chao; Qin, Weichao; Zhao, Yahui; Chen, Jingwen; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M (2019-11-01)
      Effluent organic matter (EfOM), which is composed of background natural organic matter (NOM), soluble microbial degradation products, and trace amounts of organic pollutants, can play an important role in the photodegradation of emerging pollutants in the effluent. In this study, the impact of organic pollutants, using fenofibrate acid (FNFA) as a representative, on the photodegradation of emerging contaminants, using bezafibrate (BZF) as a representative, in effluents was investigated. It is found that BZF undergo fast degradation in the presence of FNFA although BZF is recalcitrant to degradation under simulated sunlight irradiation. The promotional effect of FNFA is due to the generation of singlet oxygen (1O2) and hydrated electrons (e-aq). Based on the structures of the identified intermediates, 1O2 initiated oxidation and e-aq initiated reduction reactions were the main photodegradation pathways of BZF in the effluents. The toxicity of the main photodegradation intermediates for BZF and FNFA was higher than that of the parent compounds, and the acute toxicity increased during simulated sunlight irradiation. The results demonstrated that trace amounts of organic compounds in EfOM can play an important role in sensitizing the photodegradation of some emerging pollutants in the effluent.