Now showing items 1-20 of 3491

    • Pure neural leprosy-mind the diagnosis.

      Brandsma, W; Post, E; Wagenaar, I; Alam, K; Shetty, V; Husain, S; Prakoeswa, CRS; Shah, M; Tamang, KB (2021-11-23)
    • Menstrual blood CD146 mesenchymal stem cells reduced fibrosis rate in the rat model of premature ovarian failure.

      Yamchi, Nahideh Nazdikbin; Rahbarghazi, Reza; Bedate, Alberto Miranda; Mahdipour, Mahdi; Nouri, Mohammad; Khanbabaee, Ramazan (2021-09-03)
      Here, the regenerative potential of menstrual blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MenSCs) was examined on restoration of premature ovarian failure (POF) ovaries in rats' POF model. Freshly isolated CD146+ MenSCs using magnetic-activated cell storing method were immediately injected into ovaries of POF rats. Four and eight weeks after cell administration, both ovarian tissues were sampled for histological examination and the expression of fibrosis-related genes. Serum samples were also prepared for hormonal analysis. At the endpoint, mating trials were performed to assess the fertility of POF rats following MenSC transplantation. Histopathological examination revealed the induction of POF after Ceftriaxone injection by increasing atretic follicles and abnormal morphologies. MenSCs transplantation increased the number of normal follicles and coincided with the reduction of follicular atresia. Biochemical analyses exhibited the reduction and increase of systemic follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and E2 respectively after MenSCs transplantation compared to the POF rats (P < .05). No significant differences in anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) blood levels were detected in this study between POF controls and MenSCs-treated rats. We noted moreover the transcriptional up-regulation of Smad 2, 4, and TGF-β1 in POF rats, and these values were decreased after MenSCs transplantation (P < .01). By contrast, the RNA expression of Smad 6 remained increased in both pre- and post-treatment with MenSCs groups (P < .05). Finally, we found an increase in neonate births in POF rats treated with MenSCs, and that this feature was associated with ovarian rejuvenation through amelioration of fibrosis. These data showed that MenSCs are promising cell lineage for the alleviation of POF in the rat model by controlling the fibrosis rate.
    • Psychosocial factors and cancer incidence (PSY-CA): Protocol for individual participant data meta-analyses.

      van Tuijl, Lonneke A; Voogd, Adri C; de Graeff, Alexander; Hoogendoorn, Adriaan W; Ranchor, Adelita V; Pan, Kuan-Yu; Basten, Maartje; Lamers, Femke; Geerlings, Mirjam I; Abell, Jessica G; et al. (2021-09-02)
    • Long term exposure to low level air pollution and mortality in eight European cohorts within the ELAPSE project: pooled analysis.

      Strak, Maciej; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Rodopoulou, Sophia; Chen, Jie; de Hoogh, Kees; Andersen, Zorana J; Atkinson, Richard; Bauwelinck, Mariska; Bekkevold, Terese; Bellander, Tom; et al. (2021-09-01)
      325 367 adults from the general population recruited mostly in the 1990s or 2000s with detailed lifestyle data. Stratified Cox proportional hazard models were used to analyse the associations between air pollution and mortality. Western Europe-wide land use regression models were used to characterise residential air pollution concentrations of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and black carbon.
    • Hepatitis B screening among immigrants: How to successfully reach the Moroccan community.

      Hamdiui, Nora; Steenbergen, Jim van; Rocha, Luis E C; Meiberg, Annemarie; Urbanus, Anouk; Hammou, Nadia Ait; Muijsenbergh, Maria van den; Timen, Aura; Stein, Mart L (2021-09-01)
    • How the disruption in STI care due to the COVID-19 pandemic could lead to increased STI transmission among MSM in the Netherlands: a mathematical modelling study.

      Xiridou, Maria; Heijne, Janneke; Adam, Philippe; Op de Coul, Eline; Matser, Amy; de Wit, John; Wallinga, Jacco; van Benthem, Birgit (2021-08-31)
    • Decreased production of epithelial-derived antimicrobial molecules at mucosal barriers during early life.

      Lokken-Toyli, Kristen L; de Steenhuijsen Piters, Wouter A A; Zangari, Tonia; Martel, Rachel; Kuipers, Kirsten; Shopsin, Bo; Loomis, Cynthia; Bogaert, Debby; Weiser, Jeffrey N (2021-08-31)
    • Identifying STI risk groups based on behavioral and psychological characteristics among heterosexuals during the COVID-19 pandemic.

      van Wees, Daphne A; Godijk, Noortje G; den Daas, Chantal; Kretzschmar, Mirjam E E; Heijne, Janneke C M (2021-08-31)
    • Applicability of organ-on-chip systems in toxicology and pharmacology.

      Schneider, Marlon R; Oelgeschlaeger, Michael; Burgdorf, Tanja; van Meer, Peter; Theunissen, Peter; Kienhuis, Anne S; Piersma, Aldert H; Vandebriel, Rob J (2021-08-31)
      Organ-on-chip (OoC) systems are microfabricated cell culture devices designed to model functional units of human organs by harboring an in vitro generated organ surrogate. In the present study, we reviewed issues and opportunities related to the application of OoC in the safety and efficacy assessment of chemicals and pharmaceuticals, as well as the steps needed to achieve this goal. The relative complexity of OoC over simple in vitro assays provides advantages and disadvantages in the context of compound testing. The broader biological domain of OoC potentially enhances their predictive value, whereas their complexity present issues with throughput, standardization and transferability. Using OoCs for regulatory purposes requires detailed and standardized protocols, providing reproducible results in an interlaboratory setting. The extent to which interlaboratory standardization of OoC is feasible and necessary for regulatory application is a matter of debate. The focus of applying OoCs in safety assessment is currently directed to characterization (the biology represented in the test) and qualification (the performance of the test). To this aim, OoCs are evaluated on a limited scale, especially in the pharmaceutical industry, with restricted sets of reference substances. Given the low throughput of OoC, it is questionable whether formal validation, in which many reference substances are extensively tested in different laboratories, is feasible for OoCs. Rather, initiatives such as open technology platforms, and collaboration between OoC developers and risk assessors may prove an expedient strategy to build confidence in OoCs for application in safety and efficacy assessment.
    • Distinct patterns of within-host virus populations between two subgroups of human respiratory syncytial virus.

      Lin, Gu-Lung; Drysdale, Simon B; Snape, Matthew D; O'Connor, Daniel; Brown, Anthony; MacIntyre-Cockett, George; Mellado-Gomez, Esther; de Cesare, Mariateresa; Bonsall, David; Ansari, M Azim; et al. (2021-08-26)
    • Occurrence of tick-borne pathogens in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks from Wester Ross, Northwest Scotland.

      Olsthoorn, Fanny; Sprong, Hein; Fonville, Manoj; Rocchi, Mara; Medlock, Jolyon; Gilbert, Lucy; Ghazoul, Jaboury (2021-08-26)
    • Interlaboratory comparison of 25-hydroxyvitamin D assays: Vitamin D Standardization Program (VDSP) Intercomparison Study 2 - Part 2 ligand binding assays - impact of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D on assay performance.

      Wise, Stephen A; Camara, Johanna E; Burdette, Carolyn Q; Hahm, Grace; Nalin, Federica; Kuszak, Adam J; Merkel, Joyce; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramón A; Williams, Emma L; Popp, Christian; et al. (2021-08-25)
      An interlaboratory comparison study was conducted by the Vitamin D Standardization Program (VDSP) to assess the performance of ligand binding assays (Part 2) for the determination of serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. Fifty single-donor samples were assigned target values for concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 [25(OH)D2], 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3], 3-epi-25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [3-epi-25(OH)D3], and 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [24R,25(OH)2D3] using isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (ID LC-MS/MS). VDSP Intercomparison Study 2 Part 2 includes results from 17 laboratories using 32 ligand binding assays. Assay performance was evaluated using mean % bias compared to the assigned target values and using linear regression analysis of the test assay mean results and the target values. Only 50% of the ligand binding assays achieved the VDSP criterion of mean % bias ≤ |± 5%|. For the 13 unique ligand binding assays evaluated in this study, only 4 assays were consistently within ± 5% mean bias and 4 assays were consistently outside ± 5% mean bias regardless of the laboratory performing the assay. Based on multivariable regression analysis using the concentrations of individual vitamin D metabolites in the 50 single-donor samples, most assays underestimate 25(OH)D2 and several assays (Abbott, bioMérieux, DiaSorin, IDS-EIA, and IDS-iSYS) may have cross-reactivity from 24R,25(OH)2D3. The results of this interlaboratory study represent the most comprehensive comparison of 25(OH)D ligand binding assays published to date and is the only study to assess the impact of 24R,25(OH)2D3 content using results from a reference measurement procedure.
    • Use of targeted mobile X-ray screening and computer-aided detection software to identify tuberculosis among high-risk groups in Romania: descriptive results of the E-DETECT TB active case-finding project.

      Mahler, Beatrice; de Vries, Gerard; van Hest, Rob; Gainaru, Dan; Menezes, Dee; Popescu, Gilda; Story, Alistair; Abubakar, Ibrahim (2021-08-24)
    • Annual Tuberculosis Preventive Therapy for Persons With HIV Infection : A Randomized Trial.

      Churchyard, Gavin; Cárdenas, Vicky; Chihota, Violet; Mngadi, Kathy; Sebe, Modulakgotla; Brumskine, William; Martinson, Neil; Yimer, Getnet; Wang, Shu-Hua; Garcia-Basteiro, Alberto L; et al. (2021-08-24)
      Between November 2016 and November 2017, 4027 participants were enrolled; 4014 were included in the analyses (median age, 41 years; 69.5% women; all using antiretroviral therapy). Treatment completion in the first year for the combined rifapentine-isoniazid groups (n = 3610) was 90.4% versus 50.5% for the isoniazid group (n = 404) (risk ratio, 1.78 [95% CI, 1.61 to 1.95]). Tuberculosis incidence among participants receiving the rifapentine-isoniazid regimen twice (n = 1808) or once (n = 1802) was similar (hazard ratio, 0.96 [CI, 0.61 to 1.50]).
    • Long-term effects of smoking on serum concentrations of oxidative stress biomarkers: Results of a large, population-based cohort study.

      Salem, Ahmed Abdelraouf; Trares, Kira; Kohl, Matthias; Jansen, Eugène; Brenner, Hermann; Schöttker, Ben (2021-08-21)
    • Predictive factors for vaccine failure to guide vaccination in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients.

      Janssen, Michelle J M; Bruns, Anke H W; Verduyn Lunel, Frans M; Raijmakers, Reinier A P; de Weijer, Roel J; Nanlohy, Nening M; Smits, Gaby P; van Baarle, Debbie; Kuball, Jürgen (2021-08-20)
      Vaccination after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is essential to protect high-risk patients against potentially lethal infections. Though multiple studies have evaluated vaccine specific responses, no comprehensive analysis of a complete vaccination schedule post-HSCT has been performed and little is known about predictors for vaccine failure. In this context, allogeneic HSCT (alloHSCT) patients were included and vaccinated starting one year post-transplantation. Antibody responses were measured by Multiplex Immuno Assay for pneumococcal (PCV13), meningococcal C, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus and Haemophilus influenza type b one month after the last vaccination and correlated to clinical and immunological parameters. Vaccine failure was defined as antibody response above vaccine-specific cut-off values for less than four out of six vaccines. Ninety-six patients were included of which 27.1% was found to have vaccine failure. Only 40.6% of all patients responded adequately to all six vaccines. In multivariate analysis, viral reactivation post-HSCT (OR 6.53; P = 0.03), B-cells <135 per mm3 (OR 7.24; P = 0.00) and NK-cells <170 per mm3 (OR 11.06; P = 0.00) were identified as predictors for vaccine failure for vaccination at one year post-alloHSCT. Measurement of antibody responses and an individualized approach for revaccination guided by clinical status and immune reconstitution of B-cells and NK-cells may improve vaccine responses.
    • A global observational analysis to understand changes in air quality during exceptionally low anthropogenic emission conditions.

      Sokhi, Ranjeet S; Singh, Vikas; Querol, Xavier; Finardi, Sandro; Targino, Admir Créso; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Pavlovic, Radenko; Garland, Rebecca M; Massagué, Jordi; Kong, Shaofei; et al. (2021-08-20)
      This global study, which has been coordinated by the World Meteorological Organization Global Atmospheric Watch (WMO/GAW) programme, aims to understand the behaviour of key air pollutant species during the COVID-19 pandemic period of exceptionally low emissions across the globe. We investigated the effects of the differences in both emissions and regional and local meteorology in 2020 compared with the period 2015-2019. By adopting a globally consistent approach, this comprehensive observational analysis focuses on changes in air quality in and around cities across the globe for the following air pollutants PM2.5, PM10, PMC (coarse fraction of PM), NO2, SO2, NOx, CO, O3 and the total gaseous oxidant (OX = NO2 + O3) during the pre-lockdown, partial lockdown, full lockdown and two relaxation periods spanning from January to September 2020. The analysis is based on in situ ground-based air quality observations at over 540 traffic, background and rural stations, from 63 cities and covering 25 countries over seven geographical regions of the world. Anomalies in the air pollutant concentrations (increases or decreases during 2020 periods compared to equivalent 2015-2019 periods) were calculated and the possible effects of meteorological conditions were analysed by computing anomalies from ERA5 reanalyses and local observations for these periods. We observed a positive correlation between the reductions in NO2 and NOx concentrations and peoples' mobility for most cities. A correlation between PMC and mobility changes was also seen for some Asian and South American cities. A clear signal was not observed for other pollutants, suggesting that sources besides vehicular emissions also substantially contributed to the change in air quality. As a global and regional overview of the changes in ambient concentrations of key air quality species, we observed decreases of up to about 70% in mean NO2 and between 30% and 40% in mean PM2.5 concentrations over 2020 full lockdown compared to the same period in 2015-2019. However, PM2.5 exhibited complex signals, even within the same region, with increases in some Spanish cities, attributed mainly to the long-range transport of African dust and/or biomass burning (corroborated with the analysis of NO2/CO ratio). Some Chinese cities showed similar increases in PM2.5 during the lockdown periods, but in this case, it was likely due to secondary PM formation. Changes in O3 concentrations were highly heterogeneous, with no overall change or small increases (as in the case of Europe), and positive anomalies of 25% and 30% in East Asia and South America, respectively, with Colombia showing the largest positive anomaly of ~70%. The SO2 anomalies were negative for 2020 compared to 2015-2019 (between ~25 to 60%) for all regions. For CO, negative anomalies were observed for all regions with the largest decrease for South America of up to ~40%. The NO2/CO ratio indicated that specific sites (such as those in Spanish cities) were affected by biomass burning plumes, which outweighed the NO2 decrease due to the general reduction in mobility (ratio of ~60%). Analysis of the total oxidant (OX = NO2 + O3) showed that primary NO2 emissions at urban locations were greater than the O3 production, whereas at background sites, OX was mostly driven by the regional contributions rather than local NO2 and O3 concentrations. The present study clearly highlights the importance of meteorology and episodic contributions (e.g., from dust, domestic, agricultural biomass burning and crop fertilizing) when analysing air quality in and around cities even during large emissions reductions. There is still the need to better understand how the chemical responses of secondary pollutants to emission change under complex meteorological conditions, along with climate change and socio-economic drivers may affect future air quality. The implications for regional and global policies are also significant, as our study clearly indicates that PM2.5 concentrations would not likely meet the World Health Organization guidelines in many parts of the world, despite the drastic reductions in mobility. Consequently, revisions of air quality regulation (e.g., the Gothenburg Protocol) with more ambitious targets that are specific to the different regions of the world may well be required.
    • Do we need to change catheter-related bloodstream infection surveillance in the Netherlands? A qualitative study among infection prevention professionals.

      Verberk, Janneke Dm; van der Kooi, Tjallie Ii; Derde, Lennie Pg; Bonten, Marc Jm; de Greeff, Sabine C; van Mourik, Maaike Sm (2021-08-18)
    • Delineation of the exposure-response causality chain of chronic copper toxicity to the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, with a TK-TD model based on concepts of biotic ligand model and subcellular metal partitioning model.

      Le, T T Yen; Milen, Nachev; Grabner, Daniel; Hendriks, A Jan; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; Sures, Bernd (2021-08-18)
      A toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic model was constructed to delineate the exposure-response causality. The model could be used: to predict metal accumulation considering the influence of water chemistry and biotic ligand characteristics; to simulate the dynamics of subcellular partitioning considering metabolism, detoxification, and elimination; and to predict chronic toxicity as represented by biomarker responses from the concentration of metals in the fraction of potentially toxic metal. The model was calibrated with data generated from an experiment in which the Zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha was exposed to Cu at nominal concentrations of 25 and 50 μg/L and with varied Na+ concentrations in water up to 4.0 mmol/L for 24 days. Data used in the calibration included physicochemical conditions of the exposure environment, Cu concentrations in subcellular fractions, and oxidative stress-induced responses, i.e. glutathione-S-transferase activity and lipid peroxidation. The model explained the dynamics of subcellular Cu partitioning and the effect mechanism reasonably well. With a low affinity constant for Na + binding to Cu2+ uptake sites, Na + had limited influence on Cu2+ uptake at low Na+ concentrations in water. Copper was taken up into the metabolically available pool (MAP) at a largely higher rate than into the cellular debris. Similar Cu concentrations were found in these two fractions at low exposure levels, which could be attributed to sequestration pathways (metabolism, detoxification, and elimination) in the MAP. However, such sequestration was inefficient as shown by similar Cu concentrations in detoxified fractions with increasing exposure level accompanied by the increasing Cu concentration in the MAP.