• Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Associated Hospital Admissions and Bed Days in Children <5 Years of Age in 7 European Countries.

      Wang, Xin; Li, You; Vazquez Fernandez, Liliana; Teirlinck, Anne C; Lehtonen, Toni; van Wijhe, Maarten; Stona, Luca; Bangert, Mathieu; Reeves, Rachel M; Bøås, Håkon; et al. (2022-01-12)
    • Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Associated Hospital Admissions in Children Younger Than 5 Years in 7 European Countries Using Routinely Collected Datasets.

      Reeves, Rachel M; van Wijhe, Maarten; Tong, Sabine; Lehtonen, Toni; Stona, Luca; Teirlinck, Anne C; Fernandez, Liliana Vazquez; Li, You; Giaquinto, Carlo; Fischer, Thea Kølsen; et al. (2020-08-20)
    • Respiratory syncytial, parainfluenza and influenza virus infection in young children with acute lower respiratory infection in rural Gambia.

      Mackenzie, Grant A; Vilane, Aminata; Salaudeen, Rasheed; Hogerwerf, Lenny; van den Brink, Sharon; Wijsman, Lisa A; Overduin, Pieter; Janssens, Thierry K S; de Silva, Thushan I; van der Sande, Marianne A B; et al. (2019-11-29)
    • Response kinetics reveal novel features of ageing in murine T cells.

      Pieren, Daan K J; Smits, Noortje A M; van de Garde, Martijn D B; Guichelaar, Teun (2019-04-03)
      The impact of ageing on the immune system results in defects in T cell responsiveness. The search for ageing hallmarks has been challenging due to the complex nature of immune responses in which the kinetics of T cell responsiveness have largely been neglected. We aimed to unravel hallmarks of ageing in the kinetics of the murine T cell response. To this end, we assessed ageing-related T-cell response kinetics by studying the effect of the duration and strength of in vitro stimulation on activation, proliferation, and cytokine secretion by T cells of young and aged mice. Collectively, our data show that stimulatory strength and time kinetics of cytokine secretion, activation markers, and proliferation of Th, Tc, and Treg cells are crucial in understanding the impact of ageing on T cells. Despite low proliferative capacity, T cell subsets of aged mice do respond to stimulation by upregulation of activation markers and secretion of cytokines. These findings therefore indicate that replicative senescence of aged T cells is not a measure of unresponsiveness per se, but rather stress that ageing influences the kinetics of proliferation, upregulation of activation markers and cytokine secretion each to a different extent.
    • The response of metal leaching from soils to climate change and land management in a temperate lowland catchment

      van der Perk, Marcel; Stergiadi, Maria; de Nijs, Ton C.M.; Comans, Rob N.J.; Bierkens, Marc F.P. (2018-12)
    • Response of spontaneously hypertensive rats to inhalation of fine and ultrafine particles from traffic: experimental controlled study.

      Kooter, Ingeborg M; Boere, A John F; Fokkens, Paul Hb; Leseman, Daan Lac; Dormans, Jan Ama; Cassee, Flemming R (2006)
      ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Many epidemiological studies have shown that mass concentrations of ambient particulate matter (PM) are associated with adverse health effects in the human population. Since PM is still a very crude measure, this experimental study has explored the role of two distinct size fractions: ultrafine (<0.15 mum) and fine (0.15- 2.5 mum) PM. In a series of 2-day inhalation studies, spontaneously hypersensitive (SH) rats were exposed to fine, concentrated, ambient PM (fCAP) at a city background location or a combination of ultrafine and fine (u+fCAP) PM at a location dominated by traffic. We examined the effect on inflammation and both pathological and haematological indicators as markers of pulmonary and cardiovascular injury. Exposure concentrations ranged from 399 mug/m3 to 3613 mug/m3 for fCAP and from 269mug/m3 to 556 mug/m3 for u+fCAP. RESULTS: Ammonium, nitrate, and sulphate ions accounted for 56 +/- 16% of the total fCAP mass concentrations, but only 17 +/- 6% of the u+fCAP mass concentrations. Unambiguous particle uptake in alveolar macrophages was only seen after u+fCAP exposures. Neither fCAP nor u+fCAP induced significant changes of cytotoxicity or inflammation in the lung. However, markers of oxidative stress (heme oxygenase-1 and malondialdehyde) were affected by both fCAP and u+fCAP exposure, although not always significantly. Additional analysis revealed heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) levels that followed a nonmonotonic function with an optimum at around 600 mug/m3 for fCAP. As a systemic response, exposure to u+fCAP and fCAP resulted in significant decreases of the white blood cell concentrations. CONCLUSION: Minor pulmonary and systemic effects are observed after both fine and ultrafine + fine PM exposure. These effects do not linearly correlate with the CAP mass. A greater component of traffic CAP and/or a larger proportion ultrafine PM does not strengthen the absolute effects.
    • Response to a wild poliovirus type 2 (WPV2)-shedding event following accidental exposure to WPV2, the Netherlands, April 2017.

      Duizer, Erwin; Ruijs, Wilhelmina Lm; van der Weijden, Charlie P; Timen, Aura (2017-05-25)
      On 3 April 2017, a wild poliovirus type 2 (WPV2) spill occurred in a Dutch vaccine manufacturing plant. Two fully vaccinated operators with risk of exposure were advised on stringent personal hygiene and were monitored for virus shedding. Poliovirus (WPV2-MEF1) was detected in the stool of one, 4 days after exposure, later also in sewage samples. The operator was isolated at home and followed up until shedding stopped 29 days after exposure. No further transmission was detected.
    • Response to letter of concern by Oladimeji and Pickford of PrimerDesign.

      van Kasteren, Puck B; van der Veer, Bas; Reusken, Chantal B E M; Meijer, Adam (2020-08-01)
    • Response to Letter to the Editor on Bil et al. 2021 "Risk Assessment of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substance Mixtures: A Relative Potency Factor Approach".

      Bil, Wieneke; Zeilmaker, Marco; Fragki, Styliani; Lijzen, Johannes; Verbruggen, Eric; Bokkers, Bas (2022-01-10)
    • Response to Sequence data management for scientific purposes.

      Sprong, Hein; Coipan, Elena Claudia; Maassen, Catharina B (2017-10)
    • Response to the Letter to the Editor Regarding Our Feature "Are We Speaking the Same Language? Recommendations for a Definition and Categorization Framework for Plastic Debris".

      Hartmann, Nanna B; Hüffer, Thorsten; Thompson, Richard C; Hassellöv, Martin; Verschoor, Anja; Daugaard, Anders E; Rist, Sinja; Karlsson, Therese; Brennholt, Nicole; Cole, Matthew; et al. (2019-05-07)
    • Response to: 'Statins in systemic lupus erythematosus' by Abud-Mendoza.

      de Jong, Hilda J I; van Staa, Tjeerd P; Cohen Tervaert, Jan Willem (2018-01-22)
    • Responses to an acellular pertussis booster vaccination in children, adolescents, and young and older adults: A collaborative study in Finland, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom.

      Versteegen, Pauline; Valente Pinto, Marta; Barkoff, Alex M; van Gageldonk, Pieter G M; Kassteele, Dr Jan van de; van Houten, Dr Marlies A; Sanders, Prof Elisabeth A M; de Groot, Prof Ronald; Diavatopoulos, Dr Dimitri A; Bibi, Dr Sagida; et al. (2021-02-26)
    • Resultaten lezersonderzoek signalen uit het SO-ZI/AMR

      Frakking F; Monnier A; Haenen A; Bijkerk P (2016-12)
    • Results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Link Vitamin B6 Catabolism and Lung Cancer Risk.

      Zuo, Hui; Ueland, Per M; Midttun, Øivind; Vollset, Stein E; Tell, Grethe S; Theofylaktopoulou, Despoina; Travis, Ruth C; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fournier, Agnès; Severi, Gianluca; et al. (2018-01-01)
      Circulating pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) has been linked to lung cancer risk. The PAr index, defined as the ratio 4-pyridoxic acid/(pyridoxal + PLP), reflects increased vitamin B6 catabolism during inflammation. PAr has been defined as a marker of lung cancer risk in a prospective cohort study, but analysis of a larger numbers of cases are needed to deepen the significance of this study. Here, we conducted a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC, n = 521,330), which included 892 incident lung cancer cases and 1,748 controls matched by center, gender, date of blood collection, and date of birth. The association of PAr with risk of lung cancer was evaluated by using conditional logistic regression. Study participants with elevated PAr experienced higher risk of lung cancer in a dose-response fashion, with a doubling in PAr levels associated with 52% higher odds of lung cancer after adjustment for tobacco smoking, serum cotinine levels, educational attainment, and BMI [OR, 1.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.27-1.81; P < 0.001]. Additional adjustment for intake of vegetables and fruits and physical activity did not materially affect risk association. The association of PAr with lung cancer risk was similar in both genders but slightly stronger in former smokers and in participants diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma. This study provides robust evidence that increased vitamin B6 catabolism is independently associated with a higher risk of future lung cancer.Significance: This large cohort study firmly establishes an association between an index of vitamin B6 levels with lung cancer risk. Cancer Res; 78(1); 302-8. ©2017 AACR.
    • Results from the Netherlands' 2018 Report Card and Report Card on physical activity for children and youth with and without chronic medical condition.

      Takken, T; de Jong, N; Duijf, M; van den Berg, S; Wendel-Vos, W (2020-07-04)
      The objective of this study was to summarize the results of the 2018 the Netherlands' Physical Activity Report Card (PARC) for children and youth as well as for children and youth with a chronic medical condition (CMC; PARC+).
    • Results of outdoor smoking bans at secondary schools on adolescents smoking behaviour: a quasi-experimental study.

      Rozema, A D; Mathijssen, J J P; van Kesteren, J N; van Oers, J A M; Jansen, M W J (2019-02-04)
      Research on the effectiveness of school smoking policies on adolescents' smoking behaviour remain inconclusive. This study evaluates the results of an outdoor school ground smoking ban at secondary schools on adolescents smoking behaviour, taking individual characteristics into account. Data on 2684 adolescents from 18 Dutch secondary schools (nine with and nine without an outdoor smoking ban) were obtained at two moments. Associations between outdoor school ground smoking bans, individual characteristics, and smoking prevalence and frequency were measured. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were used. At schools with a ban implementation fidelity was checked. Although smoking prevalence and frequency appeared to make a slower increase at schools with an outdoor smoking ban compared with schools without an outdoor smoking ban, the differences were not significant. Differences between schools in the prevalence of smoking behaviour of students could mainly be explained by individual characteristics. Smoking prevalence and frequency were higher among adolescents with a positive attitude towards smoking and when significant others were more positive about smoking. Smoking prevalence and frequency were significantly lower when adolescents perceived it as easy not to smoke. Implementation fidelity was good at schools with a ban. No short-term effects were found of an outdoor smoking ban. A longer follow-up time than 6 months is needed. In addition, future research should investigate effectiveness in relation to the enforcement of the ban, comprehensiveness of the ban and when it is prohibited to leave school grounds, as smoking behavior might be transferred off school grounds.
    • A retain and refine approach to cumulative risk assessment.

      Kennedy, Marc C; Hart, Andy D M; Kruisselbrink, Johannes W; van Lenthe, Marco; de Boer, Waldo J; van der Voet, Hilko; Rorije, Emiel; Sprong, Corinne; van Klaveren, Jacob (2020-04-01)
      Mixtures of substances to which humans are exposed may lead to cumulative exposure and health effects. To study their effects, it is first necessary to identify a cumulative assessment group (CAG) of substances for risk assessment or hazard testing. Excluding substances from consideration before there is sufficient evidence may underestimate the risk. Conversely, including everything and treating the inevitable uncertainties using conservative assumptions is inefficient and may overestimate the risk, with an unknown level of protection. An efficient, transparent strategy is described to retain a large group, quantifying the uncertainty of group membership and other uncertainties. Iterative refinement of the CAG then focuses on adding information for the substances with high probability of contributing significantly to the risk. Probabilities can be estimated using expert opinion or derived from data on substance properties. An example is presented with 100 pesticides, in which the retain step identified a single substance to target refinement. Using an updated hazard characterisation for this substance reduced the mean exposure estimate from 0.43 to 0.28 μg kg-bw-1 day-1 and reduced the 99.99th percentile exposure from 24.9 to 5.1 μg kg-bw-1 day-1. Other retained substances contributed little to the risk estimates, even after accounting for uncertainty.