• The public uptake of information about antibiotic resistance in the Netherlands.

      van Rijn, Michiel; Haverkate, Manon; Achterberg, Peter; Timen, Aura (2019-02-12)
      In this study, we test to what extent an educational video on the intricacies of antibiotic resistance affects public attitudes towards antibiotic resistance and how such information is absorbed by the most likely targets of public health campaigns. We use a representative sample of 2037 individuals (from 2016) to test how people respond to a video educating them about antibiotic resistance. Our results show that receiving information does increase the general awareness of antibiotic resistance among our respondents. Yet, these effects are most profound for those who are the most likely targets of such information: the least knowledgeable group and those who have a more apathetic worldview. Our results are in line with suggestions made by the knowledge deficit model and show that the influence of cultural predispositions on the uptake of information about antibiotic resistance should not be ignored in future campaigns.
    • Publisher Correction: Differences in antigenic sites and other functional regions between genotype A and G mumps virus surface proteins.

      Gouma, Sigrid; Vermeire, Tessa; Van Gucht, Steven; Martens, Lennart; Hutse, Veronik; Cremer, Jeroen; Rota, Paul A; Leroux-Roels, Geert; Koopmans, Marion; van Binnendijk, Rob; et al. (2020-03-20)
    • Publisher Correction: Specific memory B cell response in humans upon infection with highly pathogenic H7N7 avian influenza virus.

      Westerhuis, Brenda; Ten Hulscher, Hinke; Jacobi, Ronald; van Beek, Josine; Koopmans, Marion; Rimmelzwaan, Guus; Meijer, Adam; van Binnendijk, Rob (2020-03-20)
    • Pulmonary toxicity and gene expression changes after short-term inhalation exposure to surface-modified copper oxide nanoparticles.

      Gosens, I; Costa, PM; Olsson, M; Stone, V; Brunelli, A; Badetti, E; Bonetto, A; Bokkers, BGH; et al. (2021-02-23)
    • PulseNet International: Vision for the implementation of whole genome sequencing (WGS) for global food-borne disease surveillance.

      Nadon, Celine; Van Walle, Ivo; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Campos, Josefina; Chinen, Isabel; Concepcion-Acevedo, Jeniffer; Gilpin, Brent; Smith, Anthony M; Man Kam, Kai; Perez, Enrique; et al. (2017)
      PulseNet International is a global network dedicated to laboratory-based surveillance for food-borne diseases. The network comprises the national and regional laboratory networks of Africa, Asia Pacific, Canada, Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, the Middle East, and the United States. The PulseNet International vision is the standardised use of whole genome sequencing (WGS) to identify and subtype food-borne bacterial pathogens worldwide, replacing traditional methods to strengthen preparedness and response, reduce global social and economic disease burden, and save lives. To meet the needs of real-time surveillance, the PulseNet International network will standardise subtyping via WGS using whole genome multilocus sequence typing (wgMLST), which delivers sufficiently high resolution and epidemiological concordance, plus unambiguous nomenclature for the purposes of surveillance. Standardised protocols, validation studies, quality control programmes, database and nomenclature development, and training should support the implementation and decentralisation of WGS. Ideally, WGS data collected for surveillance purposes should be publicly available, in real time where possible, respecting data protection policies. WGS data are suitable for surveillance and outbreak purposes and for answering scientific questions pertaining to source attribution, antimicrobial resistance, transmission patterns, and virulence, which will further enable the protection and improvement of public health with respect to food-borne disease.
    • Pure fruit juice and fruit consumption and the risk of CVD: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands (EPIC-NL) study.

      Scheffers, Floor R; Boer, Jolanda M A; Verschuren, W M Monique; Verheus, Martijn; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Sluijs, Ivonne; Smit, Henriëtte A; Wijga, Alet H (2019-02-01)
      Dietary guidelines for pure fruit juice consumption differ between countries, regarding the question whether pure fruit juice is an acceptable alternative for fruit. Currently, little is known about pure fruit juice consumption and the risk of CVD. In this prospective cohort study, we studied the association of pure fruit juice and fruit consumption with the incidence of fatal and non-fatal CVD, CHD and stroke and investigated the differences in association with pure fruit juice consumption between low and high fruit consumers. A validated FFQ was used to estimate dietary intake of 34 560 participants (26·0 % men and 74·0 % women) aged 20-69 years from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands study. Adjusted hazard ratios (HR) were estimated using Cox regression after average follow-up of 14·6 years. Compared with no consumption, pure fruit juice consumption up to 7 glasses/week - but not consumption of ≥8 glasses - was significantly associated with reduced risk of CVD and CHD, with HR from 0·83 (95 % CI 0·73, 0·95) to 0·88 (95 % CI 0·80, 0·97). Consumption of 1-4 and 4-8 glasses/week was significantly associated with lower risk of stroke with HR of 0·80 (95 % CI 0·64, 0·99) and 0·76 (95 % CI 0·61, 0·94), respectively. Associations did not differ considerably between low and high fruit consumers. The highest three quintiles of fruit consumption (≥121 g/d) were significantly associated with lower incidence of CVD, with HR of 0·87 (95 % CI 0·78, 0·97) and 0·88 (95 % CI 0·80, 0·98). In conclusion, although we observed favourable associations of moderate pure fruit juice consumption with CVD, for now consumption of whole fruit should be preferred because the evidence of the health benefits of fruit is more conclusive.
    • Pure neural leprosy-mind the diagnosis.

      Brandsma, W; Post, E; Wagenaar, I; Alam, K; Shetty, V; Husain, S; Prakoeswa, CRS; Shah, M; Tamang, KB (2021-11-23)
    • Puumala orthohantavirus in 2020

      Maas, M; Swart, A (2021-01-14)
    • Puumalavirusinfecties en de zaadproductie van bomen

      Maas M; Pijnacker R; Swart A (2018-02)
    • Pyrazinamide resistance-conferring mutations in pncA and the transmission of multidrug resistant TB in Georgia.

      Sengstake, Sarah; Bergval, Indra L; Schuitema, Anja R; de Beer, Jessica L; Phelan, Jody; de Zwaan, Rina; Clark, Taane G; van Soolingen, Dick; Anthony, Richard M (2017-07-12)
      The ongoing epidemic of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in Georgia highlights the need for more effective control strategies. A new regimen to treat MDR-TB that includes pyrazinamide (PZA) is currently being evaluated and PZA resistance status will largely influence the success of current and future treatment strategies. PZA susceptibility testing was not routinely performed at the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) in Tbilisi between 2010 and September 2015. We here provide a first insight into the prevalence of PZA resistant TB in this region.
    • QMRA of adenovirus in drinking water at a drinking water treatment plant using UV and chlorine dioxide disinfection.

      Schijven, Jack; Teunis, Peter; Suylen, Trudy; Ketelaars, Henk; Hornstra, Luc; Rutjes, Saskia (2019-07-01)
      According to the Dutch Drinking Water Act of 2011, Dutch drinking water suppliers must conduct a Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) for infection by the following index pathogens: enterovirus, Campylobacter, Cryptosporidium and Giardia at least once every four years in order to assess the microbial safety of drinking water. The health-based target for safe drinking water is set at less than one infection per 10 000 persons per year. At Evides Water Company, concern has arisen whether their drinking water treatment, mainly based on UV inactivation and chlorine dioxide, reduces levels of adenovirus (AdV) sufficiently. The main objective was, therefore, to conduct a QMRA for AdV. Estimates of the AdV concentrations in source water were based on enumeration of total AdV by integrated cell culture PCR (iccPCR), most probable number PCR (mpnPCR) and quantitative PCR (qPCR), and on enumeration of AdV40/41 by mpnPCR and qPCR. AdV40/41 represents a large fraction of total AdV and only a small fraction of AdV is infectious (1/1700). By comparison of literature data and plant scale data, somatic coliphages appeared a good, conservative indicator for AdV disinfection by UV irradiation. Similarly, bacteriophage MS2 appeared to be a good, conservative indicator for disinfection by chlorine dioxide. Literature data on the efficiency of chlorine dioxide disinfection were fitted with the extended HOM model. Chlorine dioxide disinfection at low initial concentrations (0.05-0.1 mg/l) was found to be the major treatment step, providing sufficient treatment on its own for compliance with the health-based target. UV disinfection of AdV at 40 mJ/cm2 or 73 mJ/cm2 was insufficient without chlorine dioxide disinfection.
    • QSAR-based estimation of SSD parameters - an exploratory investigation.

      Hoondert, Renske; Oldenkamp, Rik; de Zwart, Dick; van de Meent, Dik; Posthuma, Leo (2019-09-25)
      Ecological risk assessments are hampered by limited availability of ecotoxicity data. The present study aimed to explore the possibility of deriving SSD (species sensitivity distribution) parameters for non-tested compounds, based on simple physicochemical characteristics, known SSDs for data-rich compounds and a QSAR-type approach. The median toxicity of a data-poor chemical for species assemblages significantly varies with values of the physicochemical descriptors, especially when based on high quality SSD data (either from acute EC50 s or chronic NOECs). Beyond exploratory uses, we discussed how the precision of QSAR-based SSDs can be improved to construct models that accurately predict the SSD-parameters of data poor chemicals. The current models show that the concept of QSAR-based SSDs supports screening-level evaluations of the potential ecotoxicity of compounds for which data are lacking. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    • Qualitative Evaluation of the STOEMP Network in Ghent: An Intersectoral Approach to Make Healthy and Sustainable Food Available to All.

      Vos, Marjolijn; Romeo-Velilla, Maria; Stegeman, Ingrid; Bell, Ruth; Vliet, Nina van der; Lippevelde, Wendy Van (2020-04-28)
    • Qualitative Research: Institutional Preparedness During Threats of Infectious Disease Outbreaks.

      de Rooij, Doret; Belfroid, Evelien; Eilers, Renske; Roßkamp, Dorothee; Swaan, Corien; Timen, Aura (2020-01-01)
      A qualitative three-step study among infectious disease prevention and control experts was performed. First, interviews (n = 5) were conducted to identify which factors trigger preparedness activities during an unfolding threat. Second, these triggers informed the design of a phased preparedness system which was tested in a focus group discussion (n = 5) were conducted to identify which factors trigger preparedness activities during an unfolding threat. Second, these triggers informed the design of a phased preparedness system which was tested in a focus group discussion (n = 5) were conducted to identify which factors trigger preparedness activities during an unfolding threat. Second, these triggers informed the design of a phased preparedness system which was tested in a focus group discussion (.
    • "": A Qualitative Study of the Support Needs of Working Caregivers Taking Care of Older Adults.

      Vos, Eline E; De Bruin, Simone R; van der Beek, Allard J; Proper, Karin I (2021-05-26)
    • Quality assurance of colonoscopy within the Dutch national colorectal cancer screening program.

      Bronzwaer, Maxime E S; Depla, Annekatrien C T M; van Lelyveld, Niels; Spanier, Marcel B W; Oosterhout, Yvonne H; van Leerdam, Monique E; Spaander, Manon C W; Dekker, Evelien; van Haastert, M; Keller, J J; et al. (2018-09-18)
      Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is capable of reducing CRC-related morbidity and mortality. Colonoscopy is the reference standard to detect CRC, also providing the opportunity to detect and resect its precursor lesions; colorectal polyps. Therefore, colonoscopy is either used as a primary screening tool or as a subsequent procedure after a positive triage test in screening programs based on non-invasive stool testing or sigmoidoscopy. However, in both settings, colonoscopy is not fully protective for the occurrence of post-colonoscopy CRCs (PCCRCs). Because the majority of PCCRCs are the result of colonoscopy-related factors, a high-quality procedure is of paramount importance to assure optimal effectiveness of CRC screening programs. For this reason, at the start of the Dutch fecal immunochemical test (FIT)-based screening program, quality criteria for endoscopists performing colonoscopies in FIT-positive screenees, as well as for endoscopy centers, were defined. In conjunction, an accreditation and auditing system was designed and implemented. In this report we describe the quality assurance process for endoscopists participating in the Dutch national CRC Screening Program, including a detailed description of the evidence-based quality criteria. We believe that our experience might serve as an example for colonoscopy quality assurance programs in other CRC screening programs.