• Programme of the Community Network of Reference Laboratories for Human Influenza to improve Influenza Surveillance in Europe.

      Meijer, Adam; Brown, Caroline; Hungnes, Olav; Schweiger, Brunhilde; Valette, Martine; Werf, Sylvie van der; Zambon, Maria (2006-11-10)
      All laboratories participating in the Community Network of Reference Laboratories for Human Influenza in Europe (CNRL) co-ordinated by the European Influenza Surveillance Scheme (EISS) should be able to perform a range of influenza diagnostics. This includes direct detection, culture, typing, subtyping and strain characterisation of influenza viruses, diagnostic serology and the creation of archives for clinical specimens and virus isolates. To improve the capacity and quality of the laboratories of the CNRL and to increase the consistency in performance among all 25 European Union countries plus Norway, Romania, and Switzerland, five task groups were set up in February 2005. These task groups developed work programmes in the areas of virus isolation, antibodies, molecular virology, quality control assessment and antiviral susceptibility testing. This report outlines the programmes and the results achieved in the first half-year of operation of the task groups. The action plans are challenging and it is expected that these efforts will lead to considerable improvements in the performance of the laboratories and in the standardisation of methods employed in Europe with regard to routine influenza surveillance and early warning for emerging viruses.
    • Progress towards an OECD reporting framework for transcriptomics and metabolomics in regulatory toxicology.

      Harrill, Joshua A; Viant, Mark R; Yauk, Carole L; Sachana, Magdalini; Gant, Timothy W; Auerbach, Scott S; Beger, Richard D; Bouhifd, Mounir; O'Brien, Jason; Burgoon, Lyle; et al. (2021-07-29)
    • Projections of the Healthcare Costs and Disease Burden due to Hepatitis C Infection under Different Treatment Policies in Malaysia, 2018-2040.

      McDonald, Scott A; Azzeri, Amirah; Shabaruddin, Fatiha Hana; Dahlui, Maznah; Tan, Soek S; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Mohamed, Rosmawati (2018-08-25)
      The World Health Organisation (WHO) has set ambitious goals to reduce the global disease burden associated with, and eventually eliminate, viral hepatitis.
    • Prolonged carriage of (livestock-associated) MRSA in individuals without professional livestock contact.

      Meijs, Anouk P; Hengeveld, Paul D; Dierikx, Cindy M; Maassen, Catharina B M; de Greeff, Sabine C; de Haan, Angela; Bosch, Thijs; van Duijkeren, Engeline (2020-06-01)
    • The promoted dissolution of copper oxide nanoparticles by dissolved humic acid: Copper complexation over particle dispersion.

      Liu, Siqian; Liu, Yang; Pan, Bo; He, Ying; Li, Bowen; Zhou, Dandan; Xiao, Yinlong; Qiu, Hao; Vijver, Martina G; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M (2020-04-01)
      Humic substances are the dominant dissolved organic matter fraction in the aqueous phase of environmental media. They would inevitably react with chemicals released into the environment. The influence of dissolved humic acid (DHA) on the dissolution and dispersion of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs, 50 nm, 49.57 mg L-1) was therefore investigated in the present study. In addition to dispersing CuO NPs and reducing the size of the aggregates, the amount of released Cu from CuO NPs was found to increase over time with increasing concentrations of DHA, 96% of which was present as organic complexes after 72 h. At DHA concentrations exceeding 16.09 mg C L-1, the complexation coefficients of DHA with Cu and the adsorptivity of CuO NPs to DHA were both reduced due to increased homo-conjugation of DHA as promoted by negative charge-assisted H-bond. Although the adsorption capacity of DHA kept increasing up to 57.07 mg C L-1, the hydrodynamic diameter and ζ-potential were similar and the percentages of total released Cu continued to increase linearly to 4.92% at higher levels of DHA (30.13-57.07 mg C L-1). Thereupon, DHA promoted the dissolution of CuO NPs in a concentration-dependent fashion. The driving force was complexation of Cu by DHA, rather than the balancing between the exposed and the covered surface area of the CuO NPs due to DHA adsorption. Our findings facilitate understanding the underlying mechanisms on how DHA impacts the CuO NPs environmental behavior (or fate) as well as on their kinetics.
    • Promoting metrology in food and nutrition: a position paper on METROFOOD-RI and its e-component.

      Ogrinc, N; Seljak, BK; Presser, K; Ocke, M; Iatco, I; Zoani, C (2019-12-12)
    • Promoting physical distancing during COVID-19: a systematic approach to compare behavioral interventions.

      Blanken, Tessa F; Tanis, Charlotte C; Nauta, Floor H; Dablander, Fabian; Zijlstra, Bonne J H; Bouten, Rick R M; Oostvogel, Quinten H; Boersma, Meier J; van der Steenhoven, Maya V; van Harreveld, Frenk; et al. (2021-09-30)
    • Proposal for a tiered dietary bioaccumulation testing strategy for engineered nanomaterials using fish

      Handy, Richard D.; Ahtiainen, Jukka; Navas, J. M.; Goss, Greg; Bleeker, Eric A. J.; von der Kammer, Frank; School of Biological and Marine Sciences; Drumso Ecotoxicology Consultancy; Department of Environment; Department of Biological Sciences; et al. (2018)
      The scientific community has invested effort into standardising methodologies for the regulatory ecotoxicity testing of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), but the practical requirements for bioaccumulation testing of ENMs have been given less attention.
    • Prospectief onderzoek naar Shigella en entero-invasieve Escherichia coli

      Beld MJC van den; Boer RF de; Dam-Deisz WDC; Dam-Deisz WDC; Rossen JWA; Kooistra-Smid AMD; Friedrich AW (2015-06)
    • Prospective aquatic risk assessment for chemical mixtures in agricultural landscapes.

      Holmes, Christopher M; Brown, Colin D; Hamer, Mick; Jones, Russell; Maltby, Lorraine; Posthuma, Leo; Silberhorn, Eric; Teeter, Jerold Scott; Warne, Michael St J; Weltje, Lennart (2018-03)
      Environmental risk assessment of chemical mixtures is challenging because of the multitude of possible combinations that may occur. Aquatic risk from chemical mixtures in an agricultural landscape was evaluated prospectively in 2 exposure scenario case studies: at field scale for a program of 13 plant-protection products applied annually for 20 yr and at a watershed scale for a mixed land-use scenario over 30 yr with 12 plant-protection products and 2 veterinary pharmaceuticals used for beef cattle. Risk quotients were calculated from regulatory exposure models with typical real-world use patterns and regulatory acceptable concentrations for individual chemicals. The results could differentiate situations when there was concern associated with single chemicals from those when concern was associated with a mixture (based on concentration addition) with no single chemical triggering concern. Potential mixture risk was identified on 0.02 to 7.07% of the total days modeled, depending on the scenario, the taxa, and whether considering acute or chronic risk. Taxa at risk were influenced by receiving water body characteristics along with chemical use profiles and associated properties. The present study demonstrates that a scenario-based approach can be used to determine whether mixtures of chemicals pose risks over and above any identified using existing approaches for single chemicals, how often and to what magnitude, and ultimately which mixtures (and dominant chemicals) cause greatest concern. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:674-689. © 2017 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC.
    • Prospective comparison of two enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assays for the diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis.

      van Gorkom, T; Voet, W; Sankatsing, S U C; Nijhuis, C D M; Ter Haak, E; Kremer, K; Thijsen, S F T (2019-10-30)
    • Prospective evaluation of antibody response to Streptococcus gallolyticus and risk of colorectal cancer.

      Butt, Julia; Jenab, Mazda; Willhauck-Fleckenstein, Martina; Michel, Angelika; Pawlita, Michael; Kyrø, Cecilie; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Carbonnel, Franck; Severi, Gianluca; et al. (2018-01-29)
      The gut microbiome is increasingly implicated in colorectal cancer (CRC) development. A subgroup of patients diagnosed with CRC show high antibody responses to Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies gallolyticus (SGG). However, it is unclear whether the association is also present pre-diagnostically. We assessed the association of antibody responses to SGG proteins in pre-diagnostic serum samples with CRC risk in a case-control study nested within a prospective cohort. Pre-diagnostic serum samples from 485 first incident CRC cases (mean time between blood draw and diagnosis 3.4 years) and 485 matched controls in the European Prospective Investigation into Nutrition and Cancer (EPIC) study were analyzed for antibody responses to eleven SGG proteins using multiplex serology. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using multivariable conditional logistic regression models. Antibody positivity for any of the eleven SGG proteins was significantly associated with CRC risk with 56% positive controls compared to 63% positive cases (OR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.04-1.77). Positivity for two or more proteins of a previously identified SGG 6-marker panel with greater CRC-specificity was also observed among 9% of controls compared to 17% of CRC cases, corresponding to a significantly increased CRC risk (OR: 2.17, 95% CI: 1.44-3.27). In this prospective nested case-control study we observed a positive association between antibody responses to SGG and CRC development in serum samples taken pre-diagnostically. Further work is required to establish the possibly etiological significance of these observations and whether SGG serology may be applicable for CRC risk stratification. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    • A prospective evaluation of plasma phospholipid fatty acids and breast cancer risk in the EPIC study.

      Chajès, V; Assi, N; Biessy, C; Ferrari, P; Rinaldi, S; Slimani, N; Lenoir, G M; Baglietto, L; His, M; Boutron-Ruault, M C; et al. (2017-11-01)
      Intakes of specific fatty acids have been postulated to impact breast cancer risk but epidemiological data based on dietary questionnaires remain conflicting.
    • A Prospective Evaluation of Plasma Polyphenol Levels and Colon Cancer Risk.

      Murphy, Neil; Achaintre, David; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Jenab, Mazda; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Carbonnel, Franck; Savoye, Isabelle; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; et al. (2018-04-26)
      Polyphenols have been shown to exert biological activity in experimental models of colon cancer; however, human data linking specific polyphenols to colon cancer is limited. We assessed the relationship between pre-diagnostic plasma polyphenols and colon cancer risk in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Using high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, we measured concentrations of 35 polyphenols in plasma from 809 incident colon cancer cases and 809 matched controls. We used multivariable adjusted conditional logistic regression models that included established colon cancer risk factors. The false discovery rate (qvalues ) was computed to control for multiple comparisons. All statistical tests were two-sided. After false discovery rate correction and in continuous log2 -transformed multivariable models, equol (odds ratio [OR] per log2 -value, 0.86, 95% confidence interval [95%CI]=0.79-0.93; qvalue =0.01) and homovanillic acid (OR per log2 -value, 1.46, 95%CI=1.16-1.84; qvalue =0.02) were associated with colon cancer risk. Comparing extreme fifths, equol concentrations were inversely associated with colon cancer risk (OR=0.61, 95%CI=0.41-0.91, ptrend =0.003), while homovanillic acid concentrations were positively associated with colon cancer development (OR=1.72, 95%CI=1.17-2.53, ptrend <0.0001). No heterogeneity for these associations was observed by sex and across other colon cancer risk factors. The remaining polyphenols were not associated with colon cancer risk. Higher equol concentrations were associated with lower risk, and higher homovanillic acid concentrations were associated with greater risk, of colon cancer. These findings support a potential role for specific polyphenols in colon tumorigenesis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    • Prospective mixture risk assessment and management prioritizations for river catchments with diverse land uses.

      Posthuma, Leo; Brown, Colin; De Zwart, Dick; Diamond, Jerry; Dyer, Scott D; Holmes, Christopher M; Marshall, Stuart; Burton, G Allen (2017-08-28)
      Ecological risk assessment increasingly focuses on risks from chemical mixtures and multiple stressors, because ecosystems are commonly exposed to a plethora of contaminants and non-chemical stressors. To simplify the task of assessing potential mixture effects we explored three land-use related chemical emission scenarios. We applied a tiered methodology to judge the implications of the emissions of chemicals from agricultural practices, domestic discharges and urban run-off in a quantitative model. Results showed land-use dependent mixture exposures, clearly discriminating downstream effects of land uses, with unique chemical 'signatures' regarding composition, concentration and temporal patterns. Associated risks were characterized in relation to the land use scenarios. Comparisons to measured environmental concentrations and predicted impacts showed relatively good similarity. The results suggest that the land uses imply exceedances of regulatory protective Environmental Quality Standards, varying over time in relation to rain events and associated flow and dilution variation. Higher-tier analyses using ecotoxicological effect criteria confirmed that species assemblages may be affected due to exposures exceeding no-effect levels, and that mixture exposure could be associated with predicted species loss under certain situations. The model outcomes can inform various types of prioritization to support risk management, including a ranking across land uses as a whole, a ranking on characteristics of exposure times and frequencies, and various rankings of the relative role of individual chemicals. Though all results are based on in silico assessments, the prospective land-use based approach applied in the present study yields useful insights for simplifying and assessing potential ecological risks of chemical mixtures and can therefore be useful for catchment management decisions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    • Prospects of toxoplasmosis control by cat vaccination.

      Bonačić Marinović, Axel A; Opsteegh, Marieke; Deng, Huifang; Suijkerbuijk, Anita W M; van Gils, Paul F; Van Der Giessen, Joke (2019-12-05)
    • Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis with in a Human European Patient and its Detection in Red Squirrels ().

      von Loewenich, Friederike D; Seckert, Christof; Dauber, Elke; Kik, Marja J L; de Vries, Ankje; Sprong, Hein; Buschmann, Katja; Aardema, Matthew L; Brandstetter, Moritz (2019-10-16)
      Members of the genus Bartonella are fastidious Gram-negative facultative intracellular bacteria that are typically transmitted by arthropod vectors. Several Bartonella spp. have been found to cause culture-negative endocarditis in humans. Here, we report the case of a 75-year old German woman with prosthetic valve endocarditis due to Bartonella washoensis. The infecting agent was characterized by sequencing of six housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, ftsZ, gltA, groEL, ribC, rpoB) applying a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) approach. The 5097 bp of the concatenated housekeeping gene sequence from the patient were 99.0% identical to a B. washoensis strain from a red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris orientis) from China. 39% (24/62) of red squirrel (S. vulgaris) samples from the Netherlands were positive for the B. washoensis gltA gene variant detected in the patient. This suggests that the red squirrel is the reservoir host for human infection in Europe.
    • Protecting Pyrazinamide, a Priority for Improving Outcomes in Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Treatment.

      Anthony, R M; Cynamon, M; Hoffner, S; Werngren, J; den Hertog, A L; van Soolingen, D (2017-06)