• Nanoparticles induce dermal and intestinal innate immune system responses in zebrafish embryos

      Brun, Nadja R.; Koch, Bjørn E. V.; Varela, Mónica; Peijnenburg, Willie J. G. M.; Spaink, Herman P.; Vijver, Martina G.; Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML); Institute of Biology; Institute of Biology; Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML); et al. (2018)
      Metal and plastic nanoparticles elicit innate immune responses in the skin and intestine of zebrafish embryos potentially serving as key event for AOPs.
    • Narcolepsy and adjuvanted pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 vaccines - Multi-country assessment.

      Weibel, Daniel; Sturkenboom, Miriam; Black, Steven; de Ridder, Maria; Dodd, Caitlin; Bonhoeffer, Jan; Vanrolleghem, Ann; van der Maas, Nicoline; Lammers, Gert Jan; Overeem, Sebastiaan; et al. (2018)
      In 2010, a safety signal was detected for narcolepsy following vaccination with Pandemrix, an AS03-adjuvanted monovalent pandemic H1N1 influenza (pH1N1) vaccine. To further assess a possible association and inform policy on future use of adjuvants, we conducted a multi-country study of narcolepsy and adjuvanted pH1N1 vaccines.
    • Nasopharyngeal microbiota profiles in rural Venezuelan children are associated with respiratory and gastrointestinal infections.

      Verhagen, Lilly M; Rivera-Olivero, Ismar A; Clerc, Melanie; Chu, Mei Ling J N; van Engelsdorp Gastelaars, Jody; Kristensen, Maartje I; Berbers, Guy A M; Hermans, Peter W M; de Jonge, Marien I; de Waard, Jacobus H; et al. (2020-01-10)
    • A national FFQ for the Netherlands (the FFQ-NL1.0): development and compatibility with existing Dutch FFQs.

      Eussen, Simone Jpm; van Dongen, Martien Cjm; Wijckmans, Nicole Eg; Meijboom, Saskia; Brants, Henny Am; de Vries, Jeanne Hm; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Geelen, Anouk; Sluik, Diewertje; Feskens, Edith Jm; et al. (2018-04-22)
      In the Netherlands, various FFQs have been administered in large cohort studies, which hampers comparison and pooling of dietary data. The present study aimed to describe the development of a standardized Dutch FFQ, FFQ-NL1.0, and assess its compatibility with existing Dutch FFQs.
    • National laboratory-based surveillance system for antimicrobial resistance: a successful tool to support the control of antimicrobial resistance in the Netherlands.

      Altorf-van der Kuil, Wieke; Schoffelen, Annelot F; de Greeff, Sabine C; Thijsen, Steven Ft; Alblas, H Jeroen; Notermans, Daan W; Vlek, Anne Lm; van der Sande, Marianne Ab; Leenstra, Tjalling (2017)
      An important cornerstone in the control of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a well-designed quantitative system for the surveillance of spread and temporal trends in AMR. Since 2008, the Dutch national AMR surveillance system, based on routine data from medical microbiological laboratories (MMLs), has developed into a successful tool to support the control of AMR in the Netherlands. It provides background information for policy making in public health and healthcare services, supports development of empirical antibiotic therapy guidelines and facilitates in-depth research. In addition, participation of the MMLs in the national AMR surveillance network has contributed to sharing of knowledge and quality improvement. A future improvement will be the implementation of a new semantic standard together with standardised data transfer, which will reduce errors in data handling and enable a more real-time surveillance. Furthermore, the scientific impact and the possibility of detecting outbreaks may be amplified by merging the AMR surveillance database with databases from selected pathogen-based surveillance programmes containing patient data and genotypic typing data.
    • National point prevalence study on carriage of multidrug-resistant microorganisms in Dutch long-term care facilities in 2018.

      van Kleef, Esther; Wielders, Cornelia C H; Schouls, Leo M; Feenstra, Sabiena G; Hertogh, Cees M P M; Bonten, Marc J M; van Weert, Yolanda; Tostmann, Alma; van der Lubben, Mariken; de Greeff, Sabine C (2021-03-10)
    • National prevalence estimates of chlamydia and gonorrhoea in the Netherlands.

      Heijne, Janneke C M; van den Broek, Ingrid V F; Bruisten, Sylvia M; van Bergen, Jan E A; de Graaf, Hanneke; van Benthem, Birgit H B (2018-06-20)
      National prevalence estimates of Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonorrhoea) are important for providing insights in the occurrence and control of these STIs. The aim was to obtain national prevalence estimates for chlamydia and gonorrhoea and to investigate risk factors associated with infection.
    • A nationwide retrospective observational study of population newborn screening for medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency in the Netherlands.

      Jager, Emmalie A; Kuijpers, Myrthe M; Bosch, Annet M; Mulder, Margot F; Gozalbo, Estela R; Visser, Gepke; de Vries, Maaike; Williams, Monique; Waterham, Hans R; van Spronsen, Francjan J; et al. (2019-09-01)
    • Nationwide seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 and identification of risk factors in the general population of the Netherlands during the first epidemic wave.

      Vos, Eric R A; den Hartog, Gerco; Schepp, Rutger M; Kaaijk, Patricia; van Vliet, Jeffrey; Helm, Kina; Smits, Gaby; Wijmenga-Monsuur, Alienke; Verberk, Janneke D M; van Boven, Michiel; et al. (2020-11-28)
    • Nationwide surveillance reveals frequent detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales in Dutch municipal wastewater.

      Blaak, H; Kemper, MA; de Man, H; van Leuken, JPG; Schijven, JF; van Passel, MWJ; Schmitt, H; de Roda Husman, AM (2021-01-23)
    • Natural immunity in conventionally and organically reared turkeys and its relation with antimicrobial resistance.

      Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Di Martino, Guido; Moscati, Livia; Buniolo, Filippo; Cibin, Veronica; Bonfanti, Lebana (2020-02-01)
    • Natural killer cell activation by respiratory syncytial virus-specific antibodies is decreased in infants with severe respiratory infections and correlates with Fc-glycosylation.

      van Erp, Elisabeth A; Lakerveld, Anke J; de Graaf, Erik; Larsen, Mads D; Schepp, Rutger M; Hipgrave Ederveen, Agnes L; Ahout, Inge Ml; de Haan, Cornelis Am; Wuhrer, Manfred; Luytjes, Willem; et al. (2020-01-01)
      We found that RSV-specific maternal antibodies activate NK cells in vitro. While concentrations of RSV-specific antibodies did not differ between cases and controls, antibodies from infants hospitalised for severe respiratory infections (RSV and/or other) induced significantly less NK cell interferon-γ production than those from uninfected controls. Furthermore, NK cell activation correlated with Fc-fucosylation of RSV-specific antibodies, but their glycosylation status did not significantly differ between cases and controls.
    • Natural outdoor environments and mental health: Stress as a possible mechanism.

      Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Donaire-Gonzalez, David; Seto, Edmund; Valentín, Antònia; Martínez, David; Smith, Graham; Hurst, Gemma; Carrasco-Turigas, Glòria; Masterson, Daniel; van den Berg, Magdalena; et al. (2017-10)
      Better mental health has been associated with exposure to natural outdoor environments (NOE). However, comprehensive studies including several indicators of exposure and outcomes, potential effect modifiers and mediators are scarce.
    • Nearly 20 000 e-liquids and 250 unique flavour descriptions: an overview of the Dutch market based on information from manufacturers.

      Havermans, Anne; Krüsemann, Erna J Z; Pennings, Jeroen; de Graaf, Kees; Boesveldt, Sanne; Talhout, Reinskje (2019-11-04)
      For 16 300 e-liquids (85%), sufficient information was available for classification. The categories containing the highest number of e-liquids were fruit (34%), tobacco (16%) and dessert (10%). For all e-liquids, excluding unflavoured ones, 245 subcategories were defined within the main categories. In addition to previously reported subcategories, various miscellaneous flavours such as sandwich, buttermilk and lavender were identified.
    • Necrotising fasciitis as atypical presentation of infection with emerging Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W (MenW) clonal complex 11, the Netherlands, March 2017.

      Russcher, Anne; Fanoy, Ewout; van Olden, Ger D J; Graafland, Antonie D; van der Ende, Arie; Knol, Mirjam J (2017-06-08)
      In March 2017, a patient with necrotising fasciitis caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W (MenW) clonal complex 11 was diagnosed in the Netherlands. Unusual and severe presentations of MenW infections are common in the current European epidemic. In the Netherlands, the incidence of MenW infections increased 10-fold, from an average of 0.03 per 100,000 population in 2002-2014 to 0.29 in 2016. Awareness of atypical presentations enables timely adequate treatment and public health action.
    • Nederlandse preventie-uitgaven onder de loep.

      van Gils, PF; Suijkerbuijk, AWM; Polder, JJ; de Wit, GA; Koopmanschap, M (2020-11-12)
    • Negative Effect of Age, but Not of Latent Cytomegalovirus Infection on the Antibody Response to a Novel Influenza Vaccine Strain in Healthy Adults.

      van den Berg, Sara P H; Wong, Albert; Hendriks, Marion; Jacobi, Ronald H J; van Baarle, Debbie; van Beek, Josine (2018)
      Older adults are more vulnerable to influenza virus infection and at higher risk for severe complications and influenza-related death compared to younger adults. Unfortunately, influenza vaccine responses tend to be impaired in older adults due to aging of the immune system (immunosenescence). Latent infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) is assumed to enhance age-associated deleterious changes of the immune system. Although lower responses to influenza vaccination were reported in CMV-seropositive compared to CMV-seronegative adults and elderly, beneficial effects of CMV infection were observed as well. The lack of consensus in literature on the effect of latent CMV infection on influenza vaccination may be due to the presence of pre-existing immunity to influenza in these studies influencing the subsequent influenza vaccine response. We had the unique opportunity to evaluate the effect of age and latent CMV infection on the antibody response to the novel influenza H1N1pdm vaccine strain during the pandemic of 2009, thereby reducing the effect of pre-existing immunity on the vaccine-induced antibody response. This analysis was performed in a large study population (n = 263) in adults (18-52 years old). As a control, memory responses to the seasonal vaccination, including the same H1N1pdm and an H3N2 strain, were investigated in the subsequent season 2010-2011. With higher age, we found decreased antibody responses to the pandemic vaccination even within this age range, indicating signs of immunosenescence to this novel antigen in the study population. Using a generalized estimation equation regression model, adjusted for age, sex, and previous influenza vaccinations, we observed that CMV infection in contrast did not influence the influenza virus-specific antibody titer after H1N1pdm vaccination. Yet, we found higher residual protection rates (antibody level ≥40 hemagglutinin units (HAU)) in CMV-seropositive individuals than in CMV-seronegative individuals 6 months and 1 year after pandemic vaccination. In the subsequent season, no effect of age or CMV infection on seasonal influenza vaccine response was observed. In conclusion, we observed no evidence for CMV-induced impairment of antibody responses to a novel influenza strain vaccine in adults. If anything, our data suggest that there might be a beneficial effect of latent CMV infection on the protection rate after novel influenza vaccination.
    • Neglected vector-borne zoonoses in Europe: Into the wild.

      Tomassone, Laura; Berriatua, Eduardo; De Sousa, Rita; Duscher, Gerhard Georg; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel; Silaghi, Cornelia; Sprong, Hein; Zintl, Annetta (2018-02-15)
      Wild vertebrates are involved in the transmission cycles of numerous pathogens. Additionally, they can affect the abundance of arthropod vectors. Urbanization, landscape and climate changes, and the adaptation of vectors and wildlife to human habitats represent complex and evolving scenarios, which affect the interface of vector, wildlife and human populations, frequently with a consequent increase in zoonotic risk. While considerable attention has focused on these interrelations with regard to certain major vector-borne pathogens such as Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. and tick-borne encephalitis virus, information regarding many other zoonotic pathogens is more dispersed. In this review, we discuss the possible role of wildlife in the maintenance and spread of some of these neglected zoonoses in Europe. We present case studies on the role of rodents in the cycles of Bartonella spp., of wild ungulates in the cycle of Babesia spp., and of various wildlife species in the life cycle of Leishmania infantum, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia spp. These examples highlight the usefulness of surveillance strategies focused on neglected zoonotic agents in wildlife as a source of valuable information for health professionals, nature managers and (local) decision-makers. These benefits could be further enhanced by increased collaboration between researchers and stakeholders across Europe and a more harmonised and coordinated approach for data collection.
    • Neighborhood characteristics as determinants of healthcare utilization - a theoretical model.

      Mohnen, Sigrid M; Schneider, Sven; Droomers, Mariël (2019-03-06)
      We propose using neighborhood characteristics as demand-related morbidity adjusters to improve prediction models such as the risk equalization model. Since the neighborhood has no explicit 'place' in healthcare demand models, we have developed the "Neighborhood and healthcare utilization model" to show how neighborhoods matter in healthcare utilization. Neighborhood may affect healthcare utilization via (1) the supply-side, (2) need, and (3) demand for healthcare - irrespective of need. Three pathways are examined in detail to explain how neighborhood characteristics influence healthcare utilization via need: the physiological, psychological and behavioral pathways. We underpin this theoretical model with literature on all relevant neighborhood characteristics relating to health and healthcare utilization. Potential neighborhood characteristics for the risk equalization model include the degree of urbanization, public and open space, resources and facilities, green and blue space, environmental noise, air pollution, social capital, crime and violence, socioeconomic status, stability, and ethnic composition. Air pollution has already been successfully tested as an important predictive variable in a healthcare risk equalization model, and it might be opportune to add more neighborhood characteristics.