• Land use regression modelling estimating nitrogen oxides exposure in industrial south Durban, South Africa.

      Muttoo, Sheena; Ramsay, Lisa; Brunekreef, Bert; Beelen, Rob; Meliefste, Kees; Naidoo, Rajen N (2018-01-01)
      The South Durban (SD) area of Durban, South Africa, has a history of air pollution issues due to the juxtaposition of low-income communities with industrial areas. This study used measurements of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) to develop a land use regression (LUR) model to explain the spatial variation of air pollution concentrations in this area.
    • Large health disparities in cardiovascular death in men and women, by ethnicity and socioeconomic status in an urban based population cohort.

      Kist, Janet M; Smit, Gideon W G; Mairuhu, Albert T A; Struijs, Jeroen N; Vos, Rimke C; van Peet, Petra G; Vos, Hedwig M M; Beishuizen, Edith D; Sijpkens, Yvo W J; Groenwold, Rolf H H; et al. (2021-08-29)
    • Large-scale genomic analysis shows association between homoplastic genetic variation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes and meningeal or pulmonary tuberculosis.

      Ruesen, Carolien; Chaidir, Lidya; van Laarhoven, Arjan; Dian, Sofiati; Ganiem, Ahmad Rizal; Nebenzahl-Guimaraes, Hanna; Huynen, Martijn A; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Dutilh, Bas E; van Crevel, Reinout (2018)
      Meningitis is the most severe manifestation of tuberculosis. It is largely unknown why some people develop pulmonary TB (PTB) and others TB meningitis (TBM); we examined if the genetic background of infecting M. tuberculosis strains may be relevant.
    • Latent classes of sexual risk and corresponding STI and HIV positivity among MSM attending centres for sexual health in the Netherlands.

      Slurink, Isabel A L; van Benthem, Birgit H B; van Rooijen, Martijn S; Achterbergh, Roel C A; van Aar, Fleur (2019-06-20)
    • Latent CMV Infection Is Associated With Lower Influenza Virus-Specific Memory T-Cell Frequencies, but Not With an Impaired T-Cell Response to Acute Influenza Virus Infection.

      van den Berg, Sara P H; Lanfermeijer, Josien; Jacobi, Ronald H J; Hendriks, Marion; Vos, Martijn; van Schuijlenburg, Roos; Nanlohy, Nening M; Borghans, José A M; van Beek, Josine; van Baarle, Debbie; et al. (2021-05-05)
      Latent infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) is assumed to contribute to the age-associated decline of the immune system. CMV induces large changes in the T-cell pool and may thereby affect other immune responses. CMV is expected to impact especially older adults, who are already at higher risk of severe disease and hospitalization upon infections such as influenza virus (IAV) infection. Here, we investigated the impact of CMV infection on IAV-specific CD8+ T-cell frequencies in healthy individuals (n=96) and the response to IAV infection in older adults (n=72). IAV-specific memory T-cell frequencies were lower in healthy CMV+ older individuals compared to healthy CMV- older individuals. Upon acute IAV infection, CMV serostatus or CMV-specific antibody levels were not negatively associated with IAV-specific T-cell frequencies, function, phenotype or T-cell receptor repertoire diversity. This suggests that specific T-cell responses upon acute IAV infection are not negatively affected by CMV. In addition, we found neither an association between CMV infection and inflammatory cytokine levels in serum during acute IAV infection nor between cytokine levels and the height of the IAV-specific T-cell response upon infection. Finally, CMV infection was not associated with increased severity of influenza-related symptoms. In fact, CMV infection was even associated with increased IAV-specific T-cell responses early upon acute IAV infection. In conclusion, although associated with lower frequencies of memory IAV-specific T cells in healthy individuals, CMV infection does not seem to hamper the induction of a proper T-cell response during acute IAV infection in older adults.
    • Latent tuberculosis infection in foreign-born communities: Import vs. transmission in The Netherlands derived through mathematical modelling.

      Korthals Altes, Hester; Kloet, Serieke; Cobelens, Frank; Bootsma, Martin (2018)
      While tuberculosis (TB) represents a significant disease burden worldwide, low-incidence countries strive to reach the WHO target of pre-elimination by 2035. Screening for TB in immigrants is an important component of the strategy to reduce the TB burden in low-incidence settings. An important option is the screening and preventive treatment of latent TB infection (LTBI). Whether this policy is worthwhile depends on the extent of transmission within the country, and introduction of new cases through import. Mathematical transmission models of TB have been used to identify key parameters in the epidemiology of TB and estimate transmission rates. An important application has also been to investigate the consequences of policy scenarios. Here, we formulate a mathematical model for TB transmission within the Netherlands to estimate the size of the pool of latent infections, and to determine the share of importation-either through immigration or travel- versus transmission within the Netherlands. We take into account importation of infections due to immigration, and travel to the country of origin, focusing on the three ethnicities most represented among foreign-born TB cases (after exclusion of those overrepresented among asylum seekers): Moroccans, Turkish and Indonesians. We fit a system of ordinary differential equations to the data from the Netherlands Tuberculosis Registry on (extra-)pulmonary TB cases from 1995-2013. We estimate that about 27% of Moroccans, 25% of Indonesians, and 16% of Turkish, are latently infected. Furthermore, we find that for all three foreign-born communities, immigration is the most important source of LTBI, but the extent of within-country transmission is much lower (about half) for the Turkish and Indonesian communities than for the Moroccan. This would imply that contact investigation would have a greater yield in the latter community than in the former. Travel remains a minor factor contributing LTBI, suggesting that targeting returning travelers might be less effective at preventing LTBI than immigrants upon entry in the country.
    • Latent tuberculosis screening and treatment among asylum seekers: a mixed methods study.

      Spruijt, Ineke; Tesfay Haile, Dawit; Suurmond, Jeanine; van den Hof, Susan; Koenders, Marga; Kouw, Peter; van Noort, Natascha; Toumanian, Sophie; Cobelens, Frank; Goosen, Simone; et al. (2019-09-19)
    • Latent tuberculosis screening and treatment among asylum seekers: a mixed-methods study.

      Spruijt, Ineke; Erkens, Connie; van den Hof, Susan; Cobelens, Frank (2020-04-01)
    • Launching stakeholder discussions on identified regulatory needs for nanotechnology-enabled health products.

      Halamoda-Kenzaoui, B; Box, H; van Elk, M; Gaitan, S; Geertsma, RE (2020-12-24)
    • De LCI in 2016: van A(viaire influenza) tot Z(ika).

      Haverkate M; Broek I van den; Oomen T; SwaanC (2017-10)
    • De LCI in 2017

      Meiberg, AE; Haverkate, MR; Veenstra, T; Swaan, CM (2018-10-10)
    • LCIA framework and cross-cutting issues guidance within the UNEP-SETAC Life Cycle Initiative

      Verones, Francesca; Bare, Jane; Bulle, Cécile; Frischknecht, Rolf; Hauschild, Michael; Hellweg, Stefanie; Henderson, Andrew; Jolliet, Olivier; Laurent, Alexis; Liao, Xun; et al. (2017-09)
    • Learning from games: stakeholders' experiences involved in local health policy.

      Spitters, H P E M; van de Goor, L A M; Lau, C Juel; Sandu, P; Eklund Karlsson, L; Jansen, J; van Oers, J A M (2018-03-01)
      Since public health problems are complex and the related policies need to address a wide range of sectors, cross-sectoral collaboration is beneficial. One intervention focusing on stimulating collaboration is a 'policy game'. The focus on specific problems facilitates relationships between the stakeholders and stimulates cross-sectoral policymaking. The present study explores stakeholders' learning experiences with respect to the collaboration process in public health policymaking. This was achieved via their game participation, carried out in real-life stakeholder networks in the Netherlands, Denmark and Romania. The policy game (In2Action) was developed and implemented as a 1-day role-play. The data consisted of: (i) observations and evaluation notes during the game and (ii) participant questionnaire after the game. All three countries showed similar results in learning experience during the collaboration processes in local policymaking. Specific learning experiences were related to: (i) the stakeholder network, (ii) interaction and (iii) relationships. The game also increased participant's understanding of group dynamics and need for a coordinator in policymaking. This exploratory study shows that the game provides participants with learning experiences during the collaboration process in policymaking. Experiencing what is needed to establish cross-sectoral collaboration is a first step towards enhancing knowledge exchange and more effective public health policies.
    • LEDA, the branded food database in the Netherlands: Data challenges and opportunities.

      Westenbrink, S; van der Vossen-Wijmenga, WP; Toxopeus, I; Milder, I; Ocké, M (2021-06-25)
    • Legionella-uitbraak in Amsterdam: koeltoren als bron

      Hoek, J A R van den; IJzerman, E P F; Coutinho, Roel A (2006-08-19)
      During the period 6-28 July 2006, 30 confirmed cases of Legionella infection were identified in Amsterdam, 2 of which were fatal. All had a positive urinary antigen test, by which Legionella pneumophila serogroup I could be demonstrated. Consultations between the parties involved in the control of infectious diseases started on July 7th, as soon as it became clear that there was an outbreak. On July 10th it was established that relatively many of these patients lived in the eastern part of the city centre. After a study of the prevailing winds during the past 3 weeks, the search for installations containing water was started. A cooling tower in the town centre was closed on July 11th by way of precaution. During the following week, this tower was proven to be the source of the outbreak.
    • Legionellapreventie: betere naleving Waterleidingwet nodig

      Versteegh, A.; Brandsema, P.; Aa, M. van der; Dik, H. (Dekker en Nordemann, Rotterdam, 2007-11-01)
      Ongeveer 20 procent van de zorginstellingen en zwembaden heeft in 2005 te maken gehad met een legionellabesmetting in de leidingwaterinstallatie. Dit gold ook voor 5 procent van de hotels en campings. Vooral in zorginstellingen kan Legionella in de waterleidingen gevaarlijk zijn, omdat de mensen hier vaak een zwakkere gezondheid hebben. Circa 90% van de instellingen leeft niet alle wettelijk voorgeschreven preventiemaatregelen volledig na. Bij hercontrole is echter een groot deel van de problemen opgelost. Dit toont de effectiviteit en het belang van de controles: eenmaal op de hoogte van de risico’s zijn de eigenaren meestal bereid de nodige aanpassingen te doen. Het aantal collectieve leidingwaterinstallaties met Legionella nam tussen 2000 en 2006 niet duidelijk af. Een betere naleving van de legionellapreventie regelgeving en installatievoorschriften leidt naar verwachting wél tot minder Legionella in leidingwaterinstallaties. Tussen 2000 en 2006 steeg het aantal gemelde patiënten met legionellose. Een betrouwbare schatting van het aantal patiënten dat gerelateerd is aan een collectieve leidingwaterinstallatie als besmettingsbron is echter niet mogelijk.
    • Lessons and challenges in land change modeling derived from synthesis of cross-case comparisons.

      Pontius, RG; de Nijs, T; Castella, JC; Duan, Z; Fotsing, E (2019-03-13)
    • Let us empower the WFD to prevent risks of chemical pollution in European rivers and lakes

      Brack, W; Ait-Aissa, S; Altenburger, R; Cousins, I; Dulio, V; Escher, B; Focks, A; Ginebreda, A; Posthuma, L (2019-08-19)