• Internal consistency of a synthetic population construction method for chronic disease micro-simulation models.

      Kooiker, René; Boshuizen, Hendriek C (2018-01-01)
      Micro-simulation models of risk-factors and chronic diseases are built increasingly often, and each model starts with an initial population. Constructing such populations when no survey data covering all variables are available is no trivial task, often requiring complex methods based on several (untested) assumptions. In this paper, we propose a method for evaluating the merits of construction methods, and apply this to one specific method: the construction method used in the DYNAMO-HIA model. The initial population constructed using the DYNAMO-HIA method is compared to another population constructed by starting a simulation with only newborns and simulating the course taken by one risk-factor and several diseases. In this simulation, the age- and sex-specific prevalence of the risk-factor is kept constant over time. Our simulations show that, in general, the DYNAMO-HIA method clearly outperforms a method that assumes independence of the risk-factor and the prevalence of diseases and independence between all diseases. In many situations the DYNAMO-HIA method performs reasonably well, but in some the proportion with the risk-factor for those with a disease is under- or overestimated by as much as 10 percentage points. For determining comorbidity between diseases linked by a common causal disease or a common risk-factor it also performs reasonably well. However, the current method performs poorly for determining the comorbidity between one disease caused by the other. The DYNAMO-HIA methods perform reasonably well; they outperform a baseline assumption of independence between the risk-factor and diseases in the initial population. The method for determining the comorbidity between diseases that are causally linked needs improvement. Given the existing discrepancies for situations with high relative risks, however, developing more elaborate methods based on running simulation models to generate an initial population would be worthwhile.
    • International comparison of experience-based health state values at the population level.

      Heijink, Richard; Reitmeir, Peter; Leidl, Reiner (2017-07-07)
      Decision makers need to know whether health state values, an important component of summary measures of health, are valid for their target population. A key outcome is the individuals' valuation of their current health. This experience-based perspective is increasingly used to derive health state values. This study is the first to compare such experience-based valuations at the population level across countries.
    • An international outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis linked to eggs from Poland: a microbiological and epidemiological study.

      Pijnacker, Roan; Dallman, Timothy J; Tijsma, Aloys S L; Hawkins, Gillian; Larkin, Lesley; Kotila, Saara M; Amore, Giusi; Amato, Ettore; Suzuki, Pamina M; Denayer, Sarah; et al. (2019-07-01)
    • An international probabilistic risk assessment of acute dietary exposure to pesticide residues in relation to codex maximum residue limits for pesticides in food

      Crepet, A; Luong, TM; Baines, J; Boon, PE; Ennis, J; Kennedy, M; Massarelli, I; Miller, D; Nako, S; Reuss, R; et al. (2020-09-15)
    • Internationalization of read-across as a validated new approach method (NAM) for regulatory toxicology.

      Rovida, Costanza; Barton-Maclaren, Tara; Benfenati, Emilio; Caloni, Francesca; Chandrasekera, P. Charukeshi; Chesne, Christophe; Cronin, Mark T D; De Knecht, Joop; Dietrich, Daniel R; Escher, Sylvia E; et al. (2020-04-30)
    • Interplay between genetic predisposition, macronutrient intake and type 2 diabetes incidence: analysis within EPIC-InterAct across eight European countries.

      Li, Sherly X; Imamura, Fumiaki; Schulze, Matthias B; Zheng, Jusheng; Ye, Zheng; Agudo, Antonio; Ardanaz, Eva; Aune, Dagfinn; Boeing, Heiner; Dorronsoro, Miren; et al. (2018-03-17)
      Gene-macronutrient interactions may contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes but research evidence to date is inconclusive. We aimed to increase our understanding of the aetiology of type 2 diabetes by investigating potential interactions between genes and macronutrient intake and their association with the incidence of type 2 diabetes.
    • Interpretation of CVD risk predictions in clinical practice: Mission impossible?

      Lagerweij, G R; Moons, K G M; de Wit, G A; Koffijberg, H (2019-01-01)
      Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction models are often used to identify individuals at high risk of CVD events. Providing preventive treatment to these individuals may then reduce the CVD burden at population level. However, different prediction models may predict different (sets of) CVD outcomes which may lead to variation in selection of high risk individuals. Here, it is investigated if the use of different prediction models may actually lead to different treatment recommendations in clinical practice. The exact definition of and the event types included in the predicted outcomes of four widely used CVD risk prediction models (ATP-III, Framingham (FRS), Pooled Cohort Equations (PCE) and SCORE) was determined according to ICD-10 codes. The models were applied to a Dutch population cohort (n = 18,137) to predict the 10-year CVD risks. Finally, treatment recommendations, based on predicted risks and the treatment threshold associated with each model, were investigated and compared across models. Due to the different definitions of predicted outcomes, the predicted risks varied widely, with an average 10-year CVD risk of 1.2% (ATP), 5.2% (FRS), 1.9% (PCE), and 0.7% (SCORE). Given the variation in predicted risks and recommended treatment thresholds, preventive drugs would be prescribed for 0.2%, 14.9%, 4.4%, and 2.0% of all individuals when using ATP, FRS, PCE and SCORE, respectively. Widely used CVD prediction models vary substantially regarding their outcomes and associated absolute risk estimates. Consequently, absolute predicted 10-year risks from different prediction models cannot be compared directly. Furthermore, treatment decisions often depend on which prediction model is applied and its recommended risk threshold, introducing unwanted practice variation into risk-based preventive strategies for CVD.
    • Intersectoral Cooperation in 12 European Case Studies Aiming for Better Health, Environmental Sustainability, and Health Equity: Protocol for a Qualitative Evaluation.

      van der Vliet, Nina; Den Broeder, Lea; Romeo-Velilla, María; Kruize, Hanneke; Staatsen, Brigit; Schuit, Jantine (2020-06-24)
    • Intestinal antibody responses to a live oral poliovirus vaccine challenge among adults previously immunized with inactivated polio vaccine in Sweden.

      Brickley, Elizabeth B; Connor, Ruth I; Wieland-Alter, Wendy F; Collett, Marc S; Hartford, Marianne; van der Avoort, Harrie; Boesch, Austin W; Weiner, Joshua A; Ackerman, Margaret E; McKinlay, Mark A; et al. (2019-01-01)
    • Intestinal carriage of ampicillin- and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium in humans, dogs and cats in the Netherlands.

      van den Bunt, G; Top, J; Hordijk, J; de Greeff, S C; Mughini-Gras, L; Corander, J; van Pelt, W; Bonten, M J M; Fluit, A C; Willems, R J L (2017-12-25)
      The prevalence of ampicillin- and/or vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (AREf and VREf) has increased in hospitalized patients in the Netherlands.
    • Intoxication following minor stabs from the spines of a porcupine fish.

      Gorcum, Teetske F van; Janse, Max; Leenders, Marianne E C; Vries, Irma de; Meulenbelt, Jan (2006-06-01)
      We report an unusual intoxication by tetrodotoxin (TTX). A curator of an aquarium sustained minor punctures in his finger from the spines of a porcupine fish during an autopsy of a dead porcupine fish. He developed paresthesias, numbness, paresis, dizziness and headache. The death of the fish might have caused some autolysis, leading to increased availability of TTX. In combination with direct contact with the organ fluids, this probably led to TTX exposure via minor wounds.
    • Intraspecific genetic variation in and populations circulating in different geographical regions of Poland.

      Bilska-Zając, Ewa; Franssen, Frits; Różycki, Mirosław; Swart, Arno; Karamon, Jacek; Sroka, Jacek; Zdybel, Jolanta; Ziętek-Barszcz, Anna; Cencek, Tomasz (2019-12-01)
      Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella britovi are species of nematodes which are responsible for the majority of Trichinella infections in the world and the most prevalent in Poland. The most abundant species - T. spiralis, is considered to be more genetically homogeneous in Europe than T. britovi. The aim of the present study was to determine the genetic variability in T. spiralis and T. britovi populations based on nuclear 5S rDNA intergenic spacer region (5S rDNA) and cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COX1) gene sequences. For the study, 55 isolates of T. spiralis and 50 isolates of T. britovi isolated from wild boars, pigs, brown rat and a red fox were analyzed. Based on the analysis of both genes, the genetic variability within populations of T. spiralis and T. britovi differed. In T. spiralis, two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were observed in the 612 bp 5S rDNA gene fragment, and one SNP was detected in the 700 bp COX1 gene fragment. In T. britovi, 17 single nucleotide variations (SNVs) were detected in the 5S rDNA gene fragment (among them 16 SNPs), while COX1 sequence analysis revealed the occurrence of 20 SNVs between the sequences tested (among them 19 SNPs). For the majority of T. spiralis isolates the investigated larvae presented uniform haplotypes. In contrast, most of the isolates of T. britovi consisted of larvae of different haplotypes. Geographical analysis showed that each region exhibited different haplotype composition and richness. Warmińsko-Mazurskie and Zachodniopomorskie regions were the richest in haplotypes (15 and 16 haplotypes, respectively). We used heatmaps showing a characteristic pattern for each region graphically. This may allow to differentiate regions based on the occurrence of particular haplotypes. Furthermore, a PCA analysis on the SNP level yielded biplots that show that certain haplotypes/genotypes are associated with (clusters of) regions.
    • Introducing and Expanding Newborn Screening in the MENA Region.

      Skrinska, Victor; Khneisser, Issam; Schielen, Peter; Loeber, Gerard (2020-03-01)
    • Introducing newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) in the Dutch Neonatal Screening Program.

      Blom, M; Bredius, RGM; Weijman, G; Dekkers, EHBM; Kemper, EA; van den Akker-van Marle, ME; van der Ploeg, CPB; van der Burg, M; Schielen, PCJI (2019-03-12)
    • Invasive pneumococcal disease among adults with hematological and solid organ malignancies: a population-based cohort study.

      Garcia Garrido, Hannah M; Knol, Mirjam J; Heijmans, Jarom; van Sorge, Nina M; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Klümpen, Heinz-Josef; Grobusch, Martin P; Goorhuis, Abraham (2021-03-26)
    • Inventory of surveillance systems assessing dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviours in Europe: a DEDIPAC study.

      Bel-Serrat, Silvia; Huybrechts, Inge; Thumann, Barbara F; Hebestreit, Antje; Abuja, Peter M; de Henauw, Stefaan; Dubuisson, Carine; Heuer, Thorsten; Murrin, Celine M; Lazzeri, Giacomo; et al. (2017-08-01)
      There is a need for harmonized public health surveillance systems to monitor regional variations and temporal trends of health behaviours and health outcomes and to align policies, action plans and recommendations in terms of healthy diet and physical (in)activity within Europe. We provide an inventory of currently existing surveillance systems assessing diet, physical activity, and sedentary behaviours in Europe as a tool to assist in the identification of gaps and needs and to contribute to the roadmap for an integrated pan-European surveillance system.
    • An inverse association between the Mediterranean diet and bladder cancer risk: a pooled analysis of 13 cohort studies.

      Witlox, Willem J A; van Osch, Frits H M; Brinkman, Maree; Jochems, Sylvia; Goossens, Maria E; Weiderpass, Elisabete; White, Emily; van den Brandt, Piet A; Giles, Graham G; Milne, Roger L; et al. (2019-02-08)
      The role of diet in bladder carcinogenesis has yet to be established. To date most studies have investigated dietary components individually, rather than as dietary patterns, which may provide stronger evidence for any influence of diet on bladder carcinogenesis. The Mediterranean diet has been associated with many health benefits, but few studies have investigated its association with bladder cancer risk. We investigated the potential association between the Mediterranean diet score (MDS) and risk of developing bladder cancer by pooling 13 prospective cohort studies included in the BLadder cancer Epidemiology and Nutritional Determinants (BLEND) study and applying a Cox regression analysis. Dietary data from 646,222 study participants, including 3639 incident bladder cancer cases, were analysed. We observed an inverse association between Mediterranean diet and bladder cancer risk (HR We found evidence that adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with reduced risk of developing bladder cancer, suggesting a positive effect of the diet as a whole and not just one component.
    • Investigation of Rhizospheric Microbial Communities in Wheat, Barley, and Two Rice Varieties at the Seedling Stage

      Lu, Tao; Ke, Mingjing; Peijnenburg, W. J. G. M.; Zhu, Youchao; Zhang, Meng; Sun, Liwei; Fu, Zhengwei; Qian, Haifeng (2018-02-23)