• Initiation of anti-retroviral therapy before pregnancy reduces the risk of infection-related hospitalization in HIV-exposed uninfected infants born in a high-income country.

      Goetghebuer, Tessa; Smolen, Kinga K; Adler, Catherine; Das, Jishnu; McBride, Trevor; Smits, Gaby; Lecomte, Sandra; Haelterman, Edwige; Barlow, Patricia; Piedra, Pedro A; et al. (2018-09-12)
      Epidemiological studies conducted in low and high-income countries showed that infants exposed to maternal HIV but not infected themselves by the virus have a high risk of severe infections. Immune alterations during fetal life have been proposed as a possible mechanism.
    • INNO-LiPA DNA line probe assay misidentification of M. smegmatis as Mycobacterium fortuitum complex.

      van den Broek, Theo; Janssen, Nard G; Hetem, David J; Bekers, Wouter; Kamst, Miranda; Fluit, Ad C; van Ingen, Jakko; Kusters, Johannes G; Rentenaar, Rob J (2019-06-24)
    • Innovating dementia care; implementing characteristics of green care farms in other long-term care settings.

      Buist, Yvette; Verbeek, Hilde; de Boer, Bram; de Bruin, Simone R (2018-01-16)
      People with dementia at green care farms (GCFs) are physically more active, have more social interactions, are involved in a larger variety of activities, and come outdoors more often than those in other long-term dementia care settings. These aspects may positively affect health and well-being. This study explored which and how characteristics of GCFs could be implemented in other long-term dementia care settings, taking into account possible facilitators and barriers.
    • Innovative organotypic in vitro models for safety assessment: aligning with regulatory requirements and understanding models of the heart, skin, and liver as paradigms.

      Pridgeon, Chris S; Schlott, Constanze; Wong, Min Wei; Heringa, Minne B; Heckel, Tobias; Leedale, Joe; Launay, Laurence; Gryshkova, Vitalina; Przyborski, Stefan; Bearon, Rachel N; et al. (2018-01-23)
      The development of improved, innovative models for the detection of toxicity of drugs, chemicals, or chemicals in cosmetics is crucial to efficiently bring new products safely to market in a cost-effective and timely manner. In addition, improvement in models to detect toxicity may reduce the incidence of unexpected post-marketing toxicity and reduce or eliminate the need for animal testing. The safety of novel products of the pharmaceutical, chemical, or cosmetics industry must be assured; therefore, toxicological properties need to be assessed. Accepted methods for gathering the information required by law for approval of substances are often animal methods. To reduce, refine, and replace animal testing, innovative organotypic in vitro models have emerged. Such models appear at different levels of complexity ranging from simpler, self-organized three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures up to more advanced scaffold-based co-cultures consisting of multiple cell types. This review provides an overview of recent developments in the field of toxicity testing with in vitro models for three major organ types: heart, skin, and liver. This review also examines regulatory aspects of such models in Europe and the UK, and summarizes best practices to facilitate the acceptance and appropriate use of advanced in vitro models.
    • Innovative use of data sources: a cross-sectional study of data linkage and artificial intelligence practices across European countries.

      Haneef, Romana; Delnord, Marie; Vernay, Michel; Bauchet, Emmanuelle; Gaidelyte, Rita; Van Oyen, Herman; Or, Zeynep; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Palmieri, Luigi; Achterberg, Peter; et al. (2020-01-01)
    • Inschatting gezondheidsrisico's grafietregen Wijk aan Zee

      Geraets, L; Schulpen, S (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu, 2019-06-04)
      De afgelopen jaren is er bij het slakverwerkingsproces bij Tata Steel en Harsco verschillende keren een uitstoot geweest waarbij grafietregen in de omgeving terecht kwam. De bewoners van Wijk aan Zee willen inzicht hebben in de samenstelling van deze grafietregen en de mogelijke risico’s voor hun gezondheid. De provincie Noord-Holland heeft het RIVM gevraagd te kijken naar de mogelijkheden tot onderzoek. Hiervoor zijn vragen van de bewoners over de uitstoot van grafietregen in kaart gebracht en, waar mogelijk, beantwoord. Ook is een inschatting gemaakt van de gezondheidsrisico’s als gevolg van blootstelling aan stoffen in grafietregen.
    • Inschatting gezondheidsrisico's grafietregen Wijk aan Zee

      Geraets, L; Schulpen, S (RIVM, 2019-06-05)
    • Insights into Livestock-Related Microbial Concentrations in Air at Residential Level in a Livestock Dense Area.

      de Rooij, Myrna M T; Hoek, Gerard; Schmitt, Heike; Janse, Ingmar; Swart, Arno; Maassen, Catharina B M; Schalk, Marjolijn; Heederik, Dick J J; Wouters, Inge M (2019-07-02)
    • Insights into possibilities for grouping and read-across for nanomaterials in EU chemicals legislation.

      Mech, A; Rasmussen, K; Jantunen, P; Aicher, L; Alessandrelli, M; Bernauer, U; Bleeker, E A J; Bouillard, J; Di Prospero Fanghella, P; Draisci, R; et al. (2018-09-05)
      This paper presents a comprehensive review of European Union (EU) legislation addressing the safety of chemical substances, and possibilities within each piece of legislation for applying grouping and read-across approaches for the assessment of nanomaterials (NMs). Hence, this review considers both the overarching regulation of chemical substances under REACH (Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 on registration, evaluation, authorization, and restriction of chemicals) and CLP (Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 on classification, labeling and packaging of substances and mixtures) and the sector-specific pieces of legislation for cosmetic, plant protection and biocidal products, and legislation addressing food, novel food, and food contact materials. The relevant supporting documents (e.g. guidance documents) regarding each piece of legislation were identified and reviewed, considering the relevant technical and scientific literature. Prospective regulatory needs for implementing grouping in the assessment of NMs were identified, and the question whether each particular piece of legislation permits the use of grouping and read-across to address information gaps was answered.
    • Insights into the transcriptional responses of a microbial community to silver nanoparticles in a freshwater microcosm.

      Lu, Tao; Qu, Qian; Lavoie, Michel; Pan, Xiangjie; Peijnenburg, W J G M; Zhou, Zhigao; Pan, Xiangliang; Cai, Zhiqiang; Qian, Haifeng (2020-03-01)
      Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used because of their excellent antibacterial properties. They are, however, easily discharged into the water environment, causing potential adverse environmental effects. Meta-transcriptomic analyses are helpful to study the transcriptional response of prokaryotic and eukaryotic aquatic microorganisms to AgNPs. In the present study, microcosms were used to investigate the toxicity of AgNPs to a natural aquatic microbial community. It was found that a 7-day exposure to 10 μg L-1 silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) dramatically affected the structure of the microbial community. Aquatic micro eukaryota (including eukaryotic algae, fungi, and zooplankton) and bacteria (i.e., heterotrophic bacteria and cyanobacteria) responded differently to the AgNPs stress. Meta-transcriptomic analyses demonstrated that eukaryota could use multiple cellular strategies to cope with AgNPs stress, such as enhancing nitrogen and sulfur metabolism, over-expressing genes related to translation, amino acids biosynthesis, and promoting bacterial-eukaryotic algae interactions. By contrast, bacteria were negatively affected by AgNPs with less signs of detoxification than in case of eukaryota; various pathways related to energy metabolism, DNA replication and genetic repair were seriously inhibited by AgNPs. As a result, eukaryotic algae (mainly Chlorophyta) dominated over cyanobacteria in the AgNPs treated microcosms over the 7-d exposure. The present study helps to understand the effects of AgNPs on aquatic microorganisms and provides insights into the contrasting AgNPs toxicity in eukaryota and bacteria.
    • Instability of Acylcarnitines in Stored Dried Blood Spots: The Impact on Retrospective Analysis of Biomarkers for Inborn Errors of Metabolism.

      van Rijt, Willemijn J; Schielen, Peter C J I; Özer, Yasemin; Bijsterveld, Klaas; van der Sluijs, Fjodor H; Derks, Terry G J; Heiner-Fokkema, M Rebecca (2020-11-02)
    • Intake of dietary saturated fatty acids and risk of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands cohort: associations by types, sources of fatty acids and substitution by macronutrients.

      Liu, Shengxin; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S; Spijkerman, Annemieke M W; Sluijs, Ivonne (2018-03-09)
      The association between dietary saturated fatty acids (SFA) intake and type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains unclear. This study aimed at investigating the association between SFA intake and T2D risk based on (1) individual SFA (differing in carbon chain length), (2) food sources of SFA and (3) the substituting macronutrients.
    • Intake of Fat-Soluble Vitamins in the Belgian Population: Adequacy and Contribution of Foods, Fortified Foods and Supplements.

      Moyersoen, Isabelle; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Dekkers, Arnold; de Ridder, Karin; Tafforeau, Jean; van Camp, John; van Oyen, Herman; Lachat, Carl (2017-08-11)
      A key challenge of public health nutrition is to provide the majority of the population with a sufficient level of micronutrients while preventing high-consumers from exceeding the tolerable upper intake level. Data of the 2014 Belgian food consumption survey (n = 3200) were used to assess fat-soluble vitamin (vitamins A, D, E and K) intake from the consumption of foods, fortified foods and supplements. This study revealed inadequate intakes for vitamin A, from all sources, in the entire Belgian population and possible inadequacies for vitamin D. The prevalence of inadequate intake of vitamin A was lowest in children aged 3-6 (6-7%) and highest in adolescents (girls, 26%; boys, 34-37%). Except for women aged 60-64 years, more than 95% of the subjects had vitamin D intake from all sources below the adequate intake (AI) of 15 μg/day. The risk for inadequate intake of vitamins K and E was low (median > AI). Belgian fortification and supplementation practices are currently inadequate to eradicate suboptimal intakes of vitamins A and D, but increase median vitamin E intake close to the adequate intake. For vitamin A, a small proportion (1-4%) of young children were at risk of exceeding the upper intake level (UL), while for vitamin D, inclusion of supplements slightly increased the risk for excessive intakes (% > UL) in adult women and young children. The results may guide health authorities when developing population health interventions and regulations to ensure adequate intake of fat-soluble vitamins in Belgium.
    • Intake of individual fatty acids and risk of prostate cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition.

      Perez-Cornago, Aurora; Huybrechts, Inge; Appleby, Paul N; Schmidt, Julie A; Crowe, Francesca L; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Kühn, Tilman; Katzke, Verena; Trichopoulou, Antonia; et al. (2019-02-26)
      The associations of individual dietary fatty acids with prostate cancer risk have not been examined comprehensively. We examined the prospective association of individual dietary fatty acids with prostate cancer risk overall, by tumor subtypes, and prostate cancer death. 142,239 men from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition who were free from cancer at recruitment were included. Dietary intakes of individual fatty acids were estimated using center-specific validated dietary questionnaires at baseline and calibrated with 24-h recalls. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). After an average follow-up of 13.9 years, 7,036 prostate cancer cases and 936 prostate cancer deaths were ascertained. Intakes of individual fatty acids were not related to overall prostate cancer risk. There was evidence of heterogeneity in the association of some short chain saturated fatty acids with prostate cancer risk by tumor stage (p
    • Intakes of 4 dietary lignans and cause-specific and all-cause mortality in the Zutphen Elderly Study.

      Milder, Ivon E J; Feskens, Edith J M; Arts, Ilja C W; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Hollman, Peter C H; Kromhout, Daan (2006-08-01)
      BACKGROUND: Plant lignans are converted to enterolignans that have antioxidant and weak estrogen-like activities, and therefore they may lower cardiovascular disease and cancer risks. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether the intakes of 4 plant lignans (lariciresinol, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol, and matairesinol) were inversely associated with coronary heart disease (CHD), cardiovascular diseases (CVD), cancer, and all-cause mortality. DESIGN: The Zutphen Elderly Study is a prospective cohort study in which 570 men aged 64-84 y were followed for 15 y. We recently developed a database and used it to estimate the dietary intakes of 4 plant lignans. Lignan intake was related to mortality with the use of Cox proportional hazards analysis. RESULTS: The median total lignan intake in 1985 was 977 microg/d. Tea, vegetables, bread, coffee, fruit, and wine were the major sources of lignan. The total lignan intake was not related to mortality. However, the intake of matairesinol was inversely associated with CHD, CVD, and all-cause mortality (P
    • Integratie van zorg: inzichten uit (onderzoeks)programma's tussen 2005 en 2017

      Vrijhoef HJM; Baan CA; Nieboer AP; Batenburg RS; Valentijn PP (2017-05)
    • Integrating Clinical and Epidemiologic Data on Allergic Diseases Across Birth Cohorts: A Harmonization Study in the Mechanisms of the Development of Allergy Project.

      Benet, Marta; Albang, Richard; Pinart, Mariona; Hohmann, Cynthia; Tischer, Christina G; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Baïz, Nour; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Lødrup Carlsen, Karin C; Carlsen, Kai-Hakon; et al. (2019-02-01)
      The numbers of international collaborations among birth cohort studies designed to better understand asthma and allergies have increased in the last several years. However, differences in definitions and methods preclude direct pooling of original data on individual participants. As part of the Mechanisms of the Development of Allergy (MeDALL) Project, we harmonized data from 14 birth cohort studies (each with 3-20 follow-up periods) carried out in 9 European countries during 1990-1998 or 2003-2009. The harmonization process followed 6 steps: 1) organization of the harmonization panel; 2) identification of variables relevant to MeDALL objectives (candidate variables); 3) proposal of a definition for each candidate variable (reference definition); 4) assessment of the compatibility of each cohort variable with its reference definition (inferential equivalence) and classification of this inferential equivalence as complete, partial, or impossible; 5) convocation of a workshop to agree on the reference definitions and classifications of inferential equivalence; and 6) preparation and delivery of data through a knowledge management portal. We agreed on 137 reference definitions. The inferential equivalence of 3,551 cohort variables to their corresponding reference definitions was classified as complete, partial, and impossible for 70%, 15%, and 15% of the variables, respectively. A harmonized database was delivered to MeDALL investigators. In asthma and allergy birth cohorts, the harmonization of data for pooled analyses is feasible, and high inferential comparability may be achieved. The MeDALL harmonization approach can be used in other collaborative projects.
    • Integrating hepatitis B, hepatitis C and HIV screening into tuberculosis entry screening for migrants in the Netherlands, 2013 to 2015

      Bil, Janneke P; Schrooders, Peter AG; Prins, Maria; Kouw, Peter M; Klomp, Judith HE; Scholing, Maarten; Huijbregts, Lutje PHM; Sonder, Gerard JB; Waegemaekers, Toos CHFM; de Vries, Henry JC; et al. (2018-03-15)
    • Integrating hepatitis B, hepatitis C and HIV screening into tuberculosis entry screening for migrants in the Netherlands, 2013 to 2015.

      Bil, Janneke P; Schrooders, Peter Ag; Prins, Maria; Kouw, Peter M; Klomp, Judith He; Scholing, Maarten; Huijbregts, Lutje Phm; Sonder, Gerard Jb; Waegemaekers, Toos Chfm; de Vries, Henry Jc; et al. (2018-03)
      We evaluated uptake and diagnostic outcomes of voluntary hepatitis B (HBV) and C virus (HCV) screening offered during routine tuberculosis entry screening to migrants in Gelderland and Amsterdam, the Netherlands, between 2013 and 2015. In Amsterdam, HIV screening was also offered. Overall, 54% (461/859) accepted screening. Prevalence of chronic HBV infection (HBsAg-positive) and HCV exposure (anti-HCV-positive) in Gelderland was 4.48% (9/201; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.37-8.29) and 0.99% (2/203; 95% CI: 0.27-3.52), respectively, all infections were newly diagnosed. Prevalence of chronic HBV infection, HCV exposure and chronic HCV infection (HCV RNA-positive) in Amsterdam was 0.39% (1/256; 95% CI: 0.07-2.18), 1.17% (3/256; 95% CI: 0.40-3.39) and 0.39% (1/256; 95% CI: 0.07-2.18), respectively, with all chronic HBV/HCV infections previously diagnosed. No HIV infections were found. In univariate analyses, newly diagnosed chronic HBV infection was more likely in participants migrating for reasons other than work or study (4.35% vs 0.83%; odds ratio (OR) = 5.45; 95% CI: 1.12-26.60) and was less likely in participants in Amsterdam than Gelderland (0.00% vs 4.48%; OR = 0.04; 95% CI: 0.00-0.69). Regional differences in HBV prevalence might be explained by differences in the populations entering compulsory tuberculosis screening. Prescreening selection of migrants based on risk factors merits further exploration.