• Association between physical activity and risk of hepatobiliary cancers: A multinational cohort study.

      Baumeister, Sebastian E; Schlesinger, Sabrina; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Jochem, Carmen; Jenab, Mazda; Gunter, Marc J; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Carbonnel, Franck; et al. (2018-12-22)
      Evidence on the association between physical activity and risk of hepatobiliary cancers is inconclusive. We examined this association in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort (EPIC). We identified 275 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases, 93 intrahepatic bile duct cancers (IHBCs), and 164 non-gallbladder extrahepatic bile duct cancers (NGBCs) among 467,336 EPIC participants (median follow-up 14.9 years). We estimated cause-specific hazard ratios (HRs) for total physical activity and vigorous physical activity and performed mediation analysis and secondary analyses to assess robustness to confounding (e.g. due to hepatitis virus infection). In the EPIC cohort, the multivariable-adjusted HR of HCC was 0.55 (95% CI 0.38-0.80) comparing active and inactive individuals. Regarding vigorous physical activity, for those reporting >2 hours/week compared to those with no vigorous activity, the HR for HCC was 0.50 (95% CI 0.33-0.76). Estimates were similar in sensitivity analyses for confounding. Total and vigorous physical activity were unrelated to IHBC and NGBC. In mediation analysis, waist circumference explained about 40% and body mass index 30% of the overall association of total physical activity and HCC. These findings suggest an inverse association between physical activity and risk of HCC, which is potentially mediated by obesity.
    • KIM-1 as a Blood-Based Marker for Early Detection of Kidney Cancer: A Prospective Nested Case-Control Study.

      Scelo, Ghislaine; Muller, David C; Riboli, Elio; Johansson, Mattias; Cross, Amanda J; Vineis, Paolo; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Brennan, Paul; Boeing, Heiner; Peeters, Petra H M; et al. (2018-11-15)
      Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has the potential for cure with surgery when diagnosed at an early stage. Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) has been shown to be elevated in the plasma of RCC patients. We aimed to test whether plasma KIM-1 could represent a means of detecting RCC prior to clinical diagnosis.
    • Prospective evaluation of antibody response to Streptococcus gallolyticus and risk of colorectal cancer.

      Butt, Julia; Jenab, Mazda; Willhauck-Fleckenstein, Martina; Michel, Angelika; Pawlita, Michael; Kyrø, Cecilie; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Carbonnel, Franck; Severi, Gianluca; et al. (2018-01-29)
      The gut microbiome is increasingly implicated in colorectal cancer (CRC) development. A subgroup of patients diagnosed with CRC show high antibody responses to Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies gallolyticus (SGG). However, it is unclear whether the association is also present pre-diagnostically. We assessed the association of antibody responses to SGG proteins in pre-diagnostic serum samples with CRC risk in a case-control study nested within a prospective cohort. Pre-diagnostic serum samples from 485 first incident CRC cases (mean time between blood draw and diagnosis 3.4 years) and 485 matched controls in the European Prospective Investigation into Nutrition and Cancer (EPIC) study were analyzed for antibody responses to eleven SGG proteins using multiplex serology. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using multivariable conditional logistic regression models. Antibody positivity for any of the eleven SGG proteins was significantly associated with CRC risk with 56% positive controls compared to 63% positive cases (OR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.04-1.77). Positivity for two or more proteins of a previously identified SGG 6-marker panel with greater CRC-specificity was also observed among 9% of controls compared to 17% of CRC cases, corresponding to a significantly increased CRC risk (OR: 2.17, 95% CI: 1.44-3.27). In this prospective nested case-control study we observed a positive association between antibody responses to SGG and CRC development in serum samples taken pre-diagnostically. Further work is required to establish the possibly etiological significance of these observations and whether SGG serology may be applicable for CRC risk stratification. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.