• Rethinking Nano-TiO Safety: Overview of Toxic Effects in Humans and Aquatic Animals.

      Luo, Zhen; Li, Zhuoqing; Xie, Zhe; Sokolova, Inna M; Song, Lan; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; Hu, Menghong; Wang, Youji (2020-08-06)
      Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2 ) are widely used in consumer products, raising environmental and health concerns. An overview of the toxic effects of nano-TiO2 on human and environmental health is provided. A meta-analysis is conducted to analyze the toxicity of nano-TiO2 to the liver, circulatory system, and DNA in humans. To assess the environmental impacts of nano-TiO2 , aquatic environments that receive high nano-TiO2 inputs are focused on, and the toxicity of nano-TiO2 to aquatic organisms is discussed with regard to the present and predicted environmental concentrations. Genotoxicity, damage to membranes, inflammation and oxidative stress emerge as the main mechanisms of nano-TiO2 toxicity. Furthermore, nano-TiO2 can bind with free radicals and signal molecules, and interfere with the biochemical reactions on plasmalemma. At the higher organizational level, nano-TiO2 toxicity is manifested as the negative effects on fitness-related organismal traits including feeding, reproduction and immunity in aquatic organisms. Bibliometric analysis reveals two major research hot spots including the molecular mechanisms of toxicity of nano-TiO2 and the combined effects of nano-TiO2 and other environmental factors such as light and pH. The possible measures to reduce the harmful effects of nano-TiO2 on humans and non-target organisms has emerged as an underexplored topic requiring further investigation.