• Paradoxal Trends in Azole-Resistant Aspergillus fumigatus in a National Multicenter Surveillance Program, the Netherlands, 2013-2018.

      Lestrade, Pieter P A; Buil, Jochem B; van der Beek, Martha T; Kuijper, Ed J; van Dijk, Karin; Kampinga, Greetje A; Rijnders, Bart J A; Vonk, Alieke G; de Greeff, Sabine C; Schoffelen, Annelot F; et al.
      We investigated the prevalence of azole resistance of Aspergillus fumigatus isolates in the Netherlands by screening clinical A. fumigatus isolates for azole resistance during 2013-2018. We analyzed azole-resistant isolates phenotypically by in vitro susceptibility testing and for the presence of resistance mutations in the Cyp51A gene. Over the 6-year period, 508 (11%) of 4,496 culture-positive patients harbored an azole-resistant isolate. Resistance frequency increased from 7.6% (95% CI 5.9%-9.8%) in 2013 (58/760 patients) to 14.7% (95% CI 12.3%-17.4%) in 2018 (112/764 patients) (p = 0.0001). TR34/L98H (69%) and TR46/Y121F/T289A (17%) accounted for 86% of Cyp51A mutations. However, the mean voriconazole MIC of TR34/L98H isolates decreased from 8 mg/L (2013) to 2 mg/L (2018), and the voriconazole-resistance frequency was 34% lower in 2018 than in 2013 (p = 0.0001). Our survey showed changing azole phenotypes in TR34/L98H isolates, which hampers the use of current PCR-based resistance tests.