• Assessment of PM Exposure during Cycle Trips in The Netherlands Using Low-Cost Sensors.

      Wesseling, Joost; Hendricx, Wouter; de Ruiter, Henri; van Ratingen, Sjoerd; Drukker, Derko; Huitema, Maaike; Schouwenaar, Claar; Janssen, Geert; van Aken, Stephen; Smeenk, Jan Willem; et al. (2021-06-03)
      Air pollution, especially fine particulate matter (PM2.5), is a major environmental risk factor for human health in Europe. Monitoring of air quality takes place using expensive reference stations. Low-cost sensors are a promising addition to this official monitoring network as they add spatial and temporal resolution at low cost. Moreover, low-cost sensors might allow for better characterization of personal exposure to PM2.5. In this study, we use 500 dust (PM2.5) sensors mounted on bicycles to estimate typical PM2.5 levels to which cyclists are exposed in the province of Utrecht, the Netherlands, in the year 2020. We use co-located sensors at reference stations to calibrate and validate the mobile sensor data. We estimate that the average exposure to traffic related PM2.5, on top of background concentrations, is approximately 2 μg/m3. Our results suggest that cyclists close to major roads have a small, but consistently higher exposure to PM2.5 compared to routes with less traffic. The results allow for a detailed spatial representation of PM2.5 concentrations and show that choosing a different cycle route might lead to a lower exposure to PM2.5. Finally, we conclude that the use of mobile, low-cost sensors is a promising method to estimate exposure to air pollution.