• Detection of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) by real-time RT-PCR.

      Corman, Victor M; Landt, Olfert; Kaiser, Marco; Molenkamp, Richard; Meijer, Adam; Chu, Daniel Kw; Bleicker, Tobias; Brünink, Sebastian; Schneider, Julia; Schmidt, Marie Luisa; et al. (2020-01-01)
    • Failure to detect MERS-CoV RNA in urine of naturally infected dromedary camels.

      Farag, Elmoubasher A; Haagmans, Bart L; Al-Romaihi, Hamad; Mohran, Khaled; Haroun, Mohamed; El-Sayed, Ahmed M; Koopmans, Marion; AlHajri, Mohammed; Reusken, Chantal B E M (2019-01-01)
    • MERS-CoV in Camels but Not Camel Handlers, Sudan, 2015 and 2017.

      Farag, Elmoubasher; Sikkema, Reina S; Mohamedani, Ahmed A; de Bruin, Erwin; Munnink, Bas B Oude; Chandler, Felicity; Kohl, Robert; van der Linden, Anne; Okba, Nisreen M A; Haagmans, Bart L; et al. (2019-01-01)
    • Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) Seropositive Camel Handlers in Kenya.

      Kiyong'a, Alice N; Cook, Elizabeth A J; Okba, Nisreen M A; Kivali, Velma; Reusken, Chantal; Haagmans, Bart L; Fèvre, Eric M (2020-04-03)
    • SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern partially escape humoral but not T-cell responses in COVID-19 convalescent donors and vaccinees.

      Geers, Daryl; Shamier, Marc C; Bogers, Susanne; den Hartog, Gerco; Gommers, Lennert; Nieuwkoop, Nella N; Schmitz, Katharina S; Rijsbergen, Laurine C; van Osch, Jolieke A T; Dijkhuizen, Emma; et al.
      The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants harboring mutations in the spike (S) protein has raised concern about potential immune escape. Here, we studied humoral and cellular immune responses to wild type SARS-CoV-2 and the B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 variants of concern in a cohort of 121 BNT162b2 mRNA-vaccinated health care workers (HCW). Twenty-three HCW recovered from mild COVID-19 disease and exhibited a recall response with high levels of SARS-CoV-2-specific functional antibodies and virus-specific T cells after a single vaccination. Specific immune responses were also detected in seronegative HCW after one vaccination, but a second dose was required to reach high levels of functional antibodies and cellular immune responses in all individuals. Vaccination-induced antibodies cross-neutralized the variants B.1.1.7 and B.1.351, but the neutralizing capacity and Fc-mediated functionality against B.1.351 was consistently 2- to 4-fold lower than to the homologous virus. In addition, peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with peptide pools spanning the mutated S regions of B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 to detect cross-reactivity of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells with variants. Importantly, we observed no differences in CD4+ T-cell activation in response to variant antigens, indicating that the B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 S proteins do not escape T-cell-mediated immunity elicited by the wild type S protein. In conclusion, this study shows that some variants can partially escape humoral immunity induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection or BNT162b2 vaccination, but S-specific CD4+ T-cell activation is not affected by the mutations in the B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 variants.
    • Serologic Detection of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Functional Antibodies.

      Okba, Nisreen M A; Widjaja, Ivy; Li, Wentao; GeurtsvanKessel, Corine H; Farag, Elmoubasher A B A; Al-Hajri, Mohammed; Park, Wan Beom; Oh, Myoung-Don; Reusken, Chantal B E M; Koopmans, Marion P G; et al. (2020-05-17)
    • Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2-Specific Antibody Responses in Coronavirus Disease Patients.

      Okba, Nisreen M A; Müller, Marcel A; Li, Wentao; Wang, Chunyan; GeurtsvanKessel, Corine H; Corman, Victor M; Lamers, Mart M; Sikkema, Reina S; de Bruin, Erwin; Chandler, Felicity D; et al. (2020-06-21)