• Differences in antigenic sites and other functional regions between genotype A and G mumps virus surface proteins.

      Gouma, Sigrid; Vermeire, Tessa; Van Gucht, Steven; Martens, Lennart; Hutse, Veronik; Cremer, Jeroen; Rota, Paul A; Leroux-Roels, Geert; Koopmans, Marion; Binnendijk, Rob van; et al. (2018-09-06)
      The surface proteins of the mumps virus, the fusion protein (F) and haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN), are key factors in mumps pathogenesis and are important targets for the immune response during mumps virus infection. We compared the predicted amino acid sequences of the F and HN genes from Dutch mumps virus samples from the pre-vaccine era (1957-1982) with mumps virus genotype G strains (from 2004 onwards). Genotype G is the most frequently detected mumps genotype in recent outbreaks in vaccinated communities, especially in Western Europe, the USA and Japan. Amino acid differences between the Jeryl Lynn vaccine strains (genotype A) and genotype G strains were predominantly located in known B-cell epitopes and in N-linked glycosylation sites on the HN protein. There were eight variable amino acid positions specific to genotype A or genotype G sequences in five known B-cell epitopes of the HN protein. These differences may account for the reported antigenic differences between Jeryl Lynn and genotype G strains. We also found amino acid differences in and near sites on the HN protein that have been reported to play a role in mumps virus pathogenesis. These differences may contribute to the occurrence of genotype G outbreaks in vaccinated communities.
    • Genetic variation of hepatitis B surface antigen among acute and chronic hepatitis B virus infections in The Netherlands

      Cremer, Jeroen; Hofstraat, Sanne H. I.; van Heiningen, Francoise; Veldhuijzen, Irene K.; van Benthem, Birgit H. B.; Benschop, Kimberley S. M.; Laboratory for Infectious Diseases and Screening, Center for Infectious Disease Control; National Institute for Public Health and the Environment; Bilthoven The Netherlands; Laboratory for Infectious Diseases and Screening, Center for Infectious Disease Control; National Institute for Public Health and the Environment; Bilthoven The Netherlands; Laboratory for Infectious Diseases and Screening, Center for Infectious Disease Control; National Institute for Public Health and the Environment; Bilthoven The Netherlands; Laboratory for Infectious Diseases and Screening, Center for Infectious Disease Control; National Institute for Public Health and the Environment; Bilthoven The Netherlands; et al. (2018-10)
    • Highly sensitive parechovirus CODEHOP PCR amplification of the complete VP1 gene for typing directly from clinical specimens and correct typing based on phylogenetic clustering.

      Cremer, Jeroen; Morley, Ursula; Pas, Suzan; Wolthers, Katja; Vennema, Harry; Duizer, Erwin; Benschop, Kimberley (2019-08-01)
      The assay was HPeV-specific and has a sensitivity of 6.3 TCID50 ml-1 for HPeV1 and 0.63 TCID50 ml-1 for HPeV3. Analysis of the complete VP1 gene in comparison to partial VP1 fragments generated by previously published PCRs showed homologous clustering for most types. However, phylogenetic analysis of partial VP1 fragments showed incongruent typing based on the 75  % homology classification rule. In particular, the strains designated as type 17 were found to be either type 3 or 4 when using the (near-) complete VP1 fragment.
    • Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary Trajectory of Emerging Echovirus 30, Europe.

      Benschop, Kimberley S M; Broberg, Eeva K; Hodcroft, Emma; Schmitz, Dennis; Albert, Jan; Baicus, Anda; Bailly, Jean-Luc; Baldvinsdottir, Gudrun; Berginc, Natasa; Blomqvist, Soile; et al.
    • Molecular epidemiology of mumps viruses in the Netherlands, 2017-2019.

      Bodewes, Rogier; Reijnen, Linda; Kerkhof, Jeroen; Cremer, Jeroen; Schmitz, Dennis; van Binnendijk, Rob; Veldhuijzen, Irene K (2020-01-01)
    • Optimizing molecular surveillance of mumps genotype G viruses.

      Bodewes, Rogier; van Rooijen, Kristel; Cremer, Jeroen; Veldhuijzen, Irene K; van Binnendijk, Rob (2019-04-01)
      Mumps viruses continue to cause sporadic cases and outbreaks in countries with a high vaccination coverage for mumps. Molecular surveillance of mumps viruses can be supportive to elucidate the origin and transmission routes of mumps virus in case of an outbreak. Currently, molecular surveillance is worldwide primarily focused on sequencing of the small hydrophobic (SH) gene. However, few studies have already shown that additional genes or regions contribute to the resolution of the sequence data in such a way that mumps cases that seem to be linked to the same source on basis of the SH sequence, appear to be linked to another source or chain of transmission. Notably, this sequence information was recently extracted from the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and fusion (F) genes (total 3364 nucleotides), or from the sum of the three non-coding regions (NCRs; total 1954 nt) between the nucleocapsid protein, phosphoprotein, matrix protein and F protein, but also from the complete genome. Here, sequence data from NCRs were compared with that of the HN and F gene, using mumps genotype G viruses detected in the Netherlands between 2010 and 2018. Results of this study indicate that NCRs sequence data provided similar or slightly better sequence resolution compared to the HN and F genes for most viruses. For molecular surveillance of currently circulating mumps genotype G viruses is sequencing of SH in combination with NCRs currently a useful approach.
    • Oral fluid: Non-invasive alternative for parvovirus B19 diagnosis?

      Bodewes, Rogier; Kerkhof, Jeroen; Cremer, Jeroen; Gijselaar, Daphne B; Voordouw, Bettie C G; Veldhuijzen, Irene K; Schipper, Maarten; van Binnendijk, Rob (2019-08-01)
    • Porcine blood used as ingredient in meat productions may serve as a vehicle for hepatitis E virus transmission.

      Boxman, Ingeborg L A; Jansen, Claudia C C; Hägele, Geke; Zwartkruis-Nahuis, Ans; Cremer, Jeroen; Vennema, Harry; Tijsma, Aloys S L (2017-09-18)
      The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the use of porcine blood(products) in food could be a risk for a hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection. HEV RNA was detected in 33/36 batches of (non-heated) liquid products and in 7/24 spray dried powder products. Contamination levels varied among the products, but were highest in liquid whole blood, plasma and fibrinogen reaching levels of 2.2×102 to 2.8×102 HEV genome copies per 0.2g. Sequence analyses revealed genotype 3 strains, of which two were 100% (493nt) identical to recently diagnosed HEV cases, although no direct epidemiological link was established. The industry provided information on processing of blood products in (ready-to-eat)-meat. From this, it was concluded that blood products as an ingredient of processed meat may not be sufficiently heated prior to consumption, and therefore could be a vehicle for transmission.
    • Publisher Correction: Differences in antigenic sites and other functional regions between genotype A and G mumps virus surface proteins.

      Gouma, Sigrid; Vermeire, Tessa; Van Gucht, Steven; Martens, Lennart; Hutse, Veronik; Cremer, Jeroen; Rota, Paul A; Leroux-Roels, Geert; Koopmans, Marion; van Binnendijk, Rob; et al. (2020-03-20)