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Surveillance van pathogenen in Nederland - Detailkarakterisering van pathogenen die relevant zijn voor de openbare gezondheidszorgAvoort HGAM van der; Binnendijk RS van; Boer J den; Boxman ILA; Bruisten S; Duizer E; Duynhoven YTHP; Ende A van de; Erkens CGM; Giessen AW van de; et al. (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2007-02-15)Increased surveillance of pathogens may for strengthen the prevention and control of infectious diseases. Infectious diseases cause a considerable burden of disease the Netherlands. Detailed characterization of pathogens will yield insight in changes of the pathogen itself, in changes in transmission patterns, and in changes in virulence and resistance. Therefore it is necessary to determine which pathogens should be studied, to what level of detail, and how they should be collected. In this report , the bacteria, viruses and parasites that give the the greatest burden of disease or present the greatest risk for the public health have been described in a standardized way. Several pathogens emerge from this study for which an increase in collection and characterization is desirable. Examples are: 1) Human papillomavirus, to improve assessment of the potential vaccine efficacy. 2) Influenza virus, to better characterize resistance to antiviral drugs. 3) Bordetella pertusis (whooping cough), to detect population changes that can influence vaccine efficacy. 4) Meticillin-resistance Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), to reduce delays in contact-source tracing and containment. The pathogen surveillance in the Netherlands will be intensified on basis of this report. This enhanced surveillance will be executed in close co-operation with the peripheral microbiological laboratories.